बॆरकॆ अट्टिल् निघंट्

सूचनॆल्

  1. KaGaPa layout ऎ, कॆ,ऒ, कॊ – हृस्वस्वर ए, के,ओ, को – दीर्घस्वर – reverse of conventional itrans to retain sanskrit word spellings
  2. आ-आयुर्वेद, क-कन्नड, कॊ-कॊडव, कॊं-कॊंकणि/मराठि, म-मलयाळं, सं-संस्कृत, हिं-हिंदि
  3. Tulu words are arranged in alphabetical order with the tulu words used in the blog appearing first followed by other alternatives. You can also search with Control-F key for both Tulu and English words.

निघंट्

अगसॆ तप्पु, अगसॆ नुग्गि/चॊगचॆ/मरचगचॆ(क), अगस्ति/गाछमूंगा(हिं), अगस्ति/आगस्त्य/वङ्गसेनाक/व्रणारि/मुनितरु/दीर्घफलक(सं) = agathi, vegetable humming bird (sesbania grandiflora) – leaves, seeds, pods, flowers are edible

अगसॆ नार्, अगसॆ/नारगसॆ(क), अलसी(हिं) = flaxseed, linseed (linum usitatissimum) – seeds, sprouts are edible; roasted seed is coffee substitute; sprouts can be used in salads; seeds & other parts of plant contain cyanogenic glycosides (prussic acid) so should be consumed in small quantities;

अज्मोद, गुड्डॆसोंपु, अजवायन/हरी अजवाइन/अजमोदा/खुरासानी/अजमोदिका(हिं) = celery (apium graveolens) – leaf stems, leaves, seeds, cooked roots are edible (corriander/parsley like)(Celery Root Harvesting Machine – Celeriac Cultivation – Celery Root Farm and Harvest);

अज़ोला = azolla (azolla caroliniana/filiculoides) – plant is edible (Experimental Recipes with Azolla, Super Plant)

अड्कबारॆ/अड्करॆ, अड्कबाळॆ/अडिकेबाळॆ(क), पॆंडारॊ(कॊं) = (xeromphis uliginosa, tamilnadia uliginosa) – fruits are edible after removing seeds & skin

अणवु/अणोवु, अरिसिनतेग/हॆत्तेग/कदंब(क), हेद/हेदू(कॊं), മഞ്ഞക്കടമ്പ്(म), हलदु/हेदी/कदमी/करम(हिं), धाराकदम्ब/गिरिकदम्ब/नीप(सं) = yellow teak, haldu, saffron teak, turmeric wood (adina cordifolia, haldina cordifolia) – fruits, flower buds are edible (Herbarium JCB)

अन्नॆसॊप्पु/अण्णॆसॊप्पु/हण्णॆसॊप्पु/खडकतिरा/कोलाणि(क), कुर्डु/सर्वारि/सफ़ेद् मुर्ग(हिं), वितुन(सं) = cockscombs, woolflowers (celosia argentea/cristata) – leaves are edible

अब्ळुक/अब्लिकॆ/tabluka, तंपे/चंपे/चापॆ/संपिगॆहण्णु/हॆण्णुसंपिगॆ(क) = (flacourtia montana) – fruits are edible;

अब्रॊणि/अब्रॊनि, अभ्रांगु/बिळियभ्रांगु/तिरुकानहरळु(क), शिरल(हिं) = (grewia microcos, microcos paniculata) – fruits are edible; leaves/barks are added to herbal tea;

अमृतबूरु, अमृतबळ्ळि(क), ചിറ്റമൃത്(म), गुळवेल/गुडूची(कॊं), गुडुचि/गुलांचा/गिलोय(हिं), अमृतवल्ली/अमृता/गुडूची/अग्निसिखा/चक्रांगी/चक्रलक्षणा/चंद्रहासा/सोमलतिका/जीवन्तिका/छद्मिका/छिन्नरुहा/छिन्नोद्भवा/ज्वरारि/ज्वरनाशिनी(सं) = kanda amrta, heart leaved mooseed (tinospora cordifolia, cocculus cordifolius) – leaves for tonic tea;

अमेपु? = broth

अरणॆ बूरु, जीवहालॆ(क), അടകൊതിയൻ/അടപതിയൻ/ജീവനി/മധുസ്രവ(म) , करबफूल/शिदोडी(कॊं), छिरवेल(हिं), जीवन्ती/अर्कपुष्पी(सं) = holostemma creeper (holostemma ada-kodien) – fruits, central crown of flowers are edible (Traditional knowledge on wild food plants in Andhra Pradesh, Flowers of India);

अरदळ/अरदाळ/कच्चप्ळि = (garcinia morella) – gum, seeds, raw fruits are edible; gum/resin is used in food industry; seed fat, a substitute for ghee, is used in confectionery;

अरनॆल्लि/बिळिगड्डॆ/काष्ठनॆल्लि(क), कुडक/काकड(कॊं), അണ്ണകാര/കാട്ടുനെല്ലി(म), खरपात(हिं), कर्णिकार/किङ्किरात(सं) = garuga, grey downy balsam (garuga pinnata) – raw/boiled/pickled fruits are edible;

अरमादल/अरमादलु = thorny yellow-wood (zanthoxylum ovalifolium) – edible?

अरि, व्रीहि/शालि/रुच्य/नेम/लूनि/तिहन् = rice (oryza sativa) – seed, sprouts are edible; even ricegrass juice is edible; ( Ask the Diet Doctor: Benefits of Sprouted Grains, Selenium-Rich Ricegrass Juice Improves Antioxidant Properties and Nitric Oxide Inhibition in Macrophage Cells);

अरिजोळ = (sorghum sachcharatum)

अरिप्पु = filter

अरिप्पॆ = strainer

अर्ति, अत्ति(क), ऋम्बड्(कॊं), गूलर्(हिं), औदुम्बर/यज्ञियः/जन्तुमती/जन्तुफलः/ब्रह्मन्वृक्षः/मशकिन्/कृमिफलः/सुतः/यज्ञयोगः/जन्तुकाफलः/गूलर/सदाफलः/वसुद्रुमः/सौम्य/शीतवल्कः/उडुम्बर/हेमदुग्धकः(सं) = cluster fig tree, indian fig tree (ficus racemosa, ficus glomerata) – fruits, leaves, young shoots are edible; sap extracted from roots is also edible;

अवरॆ, सेम्(हिं) = hyacinth/lablab/bonavist/dolichos/seim/indian/egyptian-kidney/australian bean (lablab purpureus) – cooked seeds, young pods, roots, cooked/raw leaves are edible; seeds are toxic due to the presence of cyanogenic glycosides, glycosides that are converted to hydrogen cyanide when consumed resulting in weakness, vomiting etc;

अशिताब = ashitaba (angelica keiskei) – raw/cooked stipes/stalks/stems, leaves, and taproots are edible; (Growing Ashitaba aka Angelica Keiskei & Harvesting Seeds, Ashitaba: The Vegan Blood Builder and Longevity Super Plant, The Benefits of Vitamin B12 in Ashitaba);

अशोका = (saraca indica) – cooked flowers/buds, leaves are edible; fruits are used for chewing like betel nuts (note that saraca asoca is non-edible)

अत्तस, अरळि(क), अश्वत्थ/पीपल/बोधितरु(सं) = peepal, sacred fig (ficus religiosa) – fruits, young leaves, leaf buds are edible; famine food

अळलॆ/अणिलॆ, हरितकी(सं) = black myrobalan (terminalia chebula) – fruits used for salad, pickle, black salt (see also शांतिकायि/तारॆकायि/terminalia bellirica)

अळवि, आल्लिबीज/अळविबीज/कुर्तिकॆ(क), athaleeva/ahliv/ahliva(कॊं), asali(म), चन्द्रशूर/बगीचा हालिम/akalam/candsur/chansar/chansaur/chaunsar(हिं), चन्द्रशूर/रक्तराजी/रक्तबीज/चन्द्रिका/ahaleeva/asalika/ashalika/asalima(सं) = garden cress, pepperwort (lepidium sativum) – leaves, seeds, seed pods, roots are edible; seeds are used in bevarages; roots and seed oil are used for flavourings (see also चिय/chia)

ahanlive(म), जलकुंभी/नींबुई पीला/chhuch/jal-indushoor/halon/chansur(हिं), विषघ्नी/आचारी/रोची/माघी/महाकन्द/मही/waspushpa/nandini(सं) = watercress (enhydra fluctuans, nasturtium officinale) – leaves are edible; nasturtium officinale seeds. flowers, stems are also edible; seeds used for pickles; leaves, flowers used for salads; pregnant woman, children below 4 years, those with gastric ulcer should not consume

अंकोलॆ, अंकोल(सं) = sage-leaved alangium (alangium salvifolium) – fruits are edible;

अंगारजलीय, अङ्गारजलीय(सं) = carbohydrate

अंगुस्थान = thimble

अंजूर = fig (ficus carica) – fruits, leaves are edible;

अंजूर, सीमॆ अत्ति(क), ആന ചെവിയൻ അത്തി aanachcheviyan aththi, തൊണ്ടിപ്പഴം/വലിയ അത്തി(म), फागूड़ा(हिं) = elephant ear fig, giant indian fig, himalaya fig (ficus auriculata) – raw/cooked fruits are edible;

अंडिपुनार्/अंडिनार्, अंडिमुरुगलु(क) = (carallia brachiata, corallia integerrima) – fruits are edible

अंबडॆ/अंबडॆकायि, अमटॆ(क), अम्बाड़ा/अम्बाड़ी(हिं), तनुक्षीर/कपिरसाध्या/वर्षपल्किन्/अत्यम्ल/भृङ्गीफल/आम्रवाटिक/वृद्धविभीतक/आम्रातक/माधवद्रुम/इन्दुफल/वृक्षाम्ल/पीतनक/मधुराम्लक/रसाढ्य/अध्वगभोग्य/बृहद्बीज/आम्रवाटक/कपिचूड/पूराम्ल/स्वादुरसा/पशुहरीतकी/बीजामित = hog plum, wild mango (spondias pinnata, spondias mangifera) – fruits are edible, leaves are used for flavouring

अंबॆमंजल्, अंबॆहळदि/कचोर(क), कचूरं(म), आंबेहळद(कॊं), जंगली हल्दी/कचूर्(हिं), शती/शटि/सुगन्धिमूला/तिक्तकन्दका/तिक्तकन्दिका/षड्ग्रन्थिका/हिमोद्भवा/द्राविडक/कार्श/द्राविडभूतिक(सं) = zedoary, white turmeric, kentjur (curcuma zedoaria, curcuma malabarica) -raw/cooked heart of young shoots, cooked inflorescences are edible; zedoary rhizome powder is used as a spice; rhizome is pickled like mango-ginger; leaves are used for flavourings; (see also कुक्कुशुंठि/मंङन्नारि/curcuma amada/mangga, मांगन्नारि/limnophila indica);

अंबॆलि, अंबुलि = porridge

आकिरॆ, काडुचुरुचुरुकनगिड/पंचरंगि/तुरिकॆगिड(क), ആനക്കൊടിത്തൂവ/കുപ്പത്തൂവ(म), खातखुतली/आग्या(कॊं), बिछाता/बिछुआ/बिछुटी(हिं), वृश्र्चत्(सं) = hawai’i woodnettle, hen’s nettle, stinging nettle (laportea interrupta) – leaves are edible; plant has stinging hairs; (Gendered knowledge and changing trends in utilization of wild edible greens in Western Ghats, India)(see also मल्ल आकिरॆ/girardinia diversifolia);

आडुसोगॆ(क), ആടലോടകം(म), अडुळसा/अडुलसो/अडुसा/अडुसोगे/अडूलशा/वासा/वसाका(कॊं), आरुखा/आडसा/अड़ूसा/अडाल्सो/अरुस/अरूशो/वसाका/रूस/सिंहपर्णी/वाजिनी/विसौटा(हिं), अटरूष/प्रामाद्य/वाजिन्/वाजिदन्त/वाजिदन्तक/सिंहिका/सिंहास्या/वसाका/वसुक/वृषा(सं) = malabar nut tree, white vasa, yellow vasa (justicia adhatoda) – boiled young tender shoots are edible

आतपॆ/आतप्पॆ/तसयि/तातप्पॆ/तातयि/हातप्पॆ, कारवी(सं) = caraway, meridian fennel, persian cumin (carum carvi) – raw/cooked seeds/fruits, leaves, cooked roots are edible; fruits are used as a spice (see also कलॊंजि, काट्’जीर्दरि, कालजीर्दरि/काळजीरिगॆ)

आनॆकडीर्, दॊड्डकळ्ळंगडलॆ/bannegaruda/binnegaruda/baralu kaddi/bellu maravi/bennegaragu/binneganga/bolamgadale/bolangadale/ gobetadegida/goobe thale gida/goobetale gida/gubethadegida/kaadu kadle/kadiru/kallangadale/kallangalle/kisangihettuti-gida/aanekadeeru/banne garuga gida/ dodda kallangadale/goobethade gida(क), kurumthotti/vankurunthotti/anakurunthotti/vatturam/velluram(म), sadeda/सहदेवि/अतिबाल/baler/chikna(कॊं), सहदेव/अतिबाल/barela/bariara/bhiunli/dhabi/kharenti/kheriti/lalbarela/lalbariala/pitabala/safed/sahadebi/sahadeva/svetberela/swet-barela/swetbarela(हिं), कङ्कती/कङ्कतिका/घण्टा/महाबला/विकङ्कता/बलिका/वृष्यगन्धिका/भद्रौदनी/भूरिबला/ahikhanda/atibala/bala/barel/brihadagala/devaarha/devabala/devasaha/gandhavallari/gandhavalli/hara/jyeshthabala/karambi/kesarika/keshawardhini/keshruha/lalbarila/mahabala/mahagalarthaprasadini/mahagandha/mriga/mrigadini/mrigarasa/pitapushpa/prasadini/sahadeva/sahadevi/samanga/sarini/vadha/varshapushpa/varshpushpi/vataghni/vatya/vatyayani(सं) = rhombus-leaved sida, paddy’s lucerne, jelly leaf, cuban jute,queensland-hemp, indian hemp (sida rhombifolia) – cooked leaves are edible; leaves are used for herbal tea; (see also sida retusa);

आफ़्रीक तॆक्करॆ, अफ़्रीकी खीरा(हिं) = gherkin, cackrey, maroon cucumber, west indian/burr gherkin (cucumis anguria) – fruits, seeds, young leaves are edible; fruits are mainly used for pickles;

आयुष्य बसळॆ = sabungai, longevity spinach (gynura procumbens https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gynura_procumbens) – fresh/cooked leaves and young shoots are edible; (longevity spinach — a perennial green for hot climates); (see also ऒकिनावा बसळॆ/gynura bicolor, चीनि बसळॆ/gynura pseudochina, gynura divaricata);

आलूबुखारा/अलूचा(हिं) = plum (prunus subgenus prunus, prunus domestica) – fruits are edible; seeds contain toxic cyanide;

आवरिकॆ/हॊन्नावरिकॆ/हॊन्नरिकॆ/आवकिरॆ/तंगडि(क), तरवट/तगरवल्लि(सं) = (senna auriculata, cassia auriculata) – young pods, young leaves, young flowers though are edible toxicity is reported; famine food

आहारप्रवण = foodgrade (grade = प्रवण)

आहार संस्कारक = food processor

इजिन् इरॆ= bay leaf

इटलीय कोसु = dino kale, dinosaur kale, lacinato kale, italian kale (brassica oleracea) – leaves are edible;

इन्सुलिन् प्लान्ट्, केउ/केउकंद(हिं) = insulin plant, spiral flag, spiral ginger (costus pictus) – flowers, leaves are edible and can be used for salads; (Grower Jim’s Plant & Produce);

इब्बुड्ल/इबुड्लु/चिप्पड्, कर्बूज/इब्बड्ल(क) = muskmelon, cantaloupe, mushmelon, rockmelon, sweet melon (cucumis melo) – fruits, seeds, microgreens are edible; (How to Grow Microgreens – Full walk-through with TIPS & TRICKS on Melon Microgreens!! – On The Grow);

इरॆकोसु/इरॆगॊबि, ऎलॆकोसु(क), पत्तागोबि/पत्तागोभी(हिं) = cabbage (brassica oleracea, brassica oleracea var capitata) – leaves head/bud are edible

इरॊल्/ईरॊळ्/तारॊळु, ताळॆहण्णु/एलनिंगु/ताटिनिंगु(क) = palmyra fruit, palmyra/doub/tala/toddy/wine palm fruit (borassus flabellifer)- fruits, seeds, inflorescence, trunk starch, roots are edible; palm ash/salt from leaves; sap used for making jaggery/sugar

इंगुदि बळ्ळु, पूवन्न(क), എരുമത്താളി/ഓടൽ/വെള്ളയോടൽ(म) इङ्गुदी(सं) = odal oil plant (sarcostigma kleinii) – ripe fruits are edible; (Wild edible plants traditionally used by the tribes inthe Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala, India);

इंग्/ईंग्/हिंग्, हिंगु/इंगु(क), हींग्(हिं) = asafoetida, food of the gods, devil’s dung, hing (ferula) – a spice used for flavouring

ईचिल्, ईचलु(क), കാടിനൊത്ത(म), सेंधी(हिं) = wild date palm (phoenix sylvestris) – fruits, sap are edible; sap used for making jaggery/sugar (see also कर्जूर/खर्जूर)

ईरोळ् कंडॆ, काडुतॊंडॆ/कॆंपुतॊंडॆ(क), കരിമുതുക്ക് /മുതുക്ക് /പാൽമുതുക്ക് (म), भूमिकुंटी/कोंडळ(कॊं), विदारी(सं) = (adenia hondala) – leaves are edible (Gendered knowledge and changing trends in utilization of wild edible greens in Western Ghats, India)

ईंद्, यींद्, बैने(क) = solitary fishtail palm, toddy/wine/jaggery palm (caryota urens) – fruit is are edible after removing outer cover which has irritant oxalic acid; jaggery is prepared from sap extracted from inflorescence; edible powder/flour is prepared from fully grown tree pulp; (Cooking traditional soup vegetable in my village, Tasting Fishtail Palm (Caryota cf urens), Fishtail palm with big juicy fruit in Borneo (Caryota cf. no?));

उगुरु बूरु, बेलिहत्ति/हालु कॊरटिगॆ/उगुरुसुत्तिन बळ्ळि(क), വേലിപ്പരുത്തി(म), मेंढा दुधी/उतरण(कॊं), ढोली दूधी/गडरिया की बेल/मेंडा सींगी/उतरन(हिं), काकजङ्घा/नलिका/उत्तमारणी/विषाणिका(सं) = hair knot plant, stinking swallowwort, trellis-vine, whitlow plant (pergularia daemia) – cooked tender leaves, young stems, tuberous roots, are edible; fruits are also edible; plant especially latex is highly poisonous; NOT EDIBLE

उत्राणि/उत्तरणि, उत्तराणि/उत्राणि/उत्राणिके, अपमार्ग/खरमञ्जरी/अक्षर/प्रत्यञ्च्पुष्प/मयूर/वशीर(सं), चिरचिटा/अघाड़ा/तरुण/दुरअभिग्रह/धानुष्का/मधुकर/लटजीरा(हिं), കടലാടി(म) = burweed, chaff-flower, prickly chaff-flower, devil’s horsewhip (achyranthes aspera) – cooked leaves, seeds are edible; leaves used for vegetable salt

उदुरि/उद्रि/शतावरि, बहुसुतॆ/सीबर/सीबरि/हलवु मक्कळ तायि(क), ശതാവരി(म), सतावर/सतावरी/सतमूल(हिं), शतावरी/शतमूली/उत्तमारणी/लघुपर्णिका/मदभञ्जिनी/वरीयसी/महोदरी/वज्रपत्त्रिका(सं) = shatavari, buttermilk root, climbing asparagus, water root, wild asparagus, wild carrot (asparagus racemosus) – tender young shoots, tubers are edible (see also काट्’शतावरि/परॆंगि शतावरि/शतावरि)

उप्पट्टि, ഒറയി(म), तवीर/तिवर(म), बिना(हिं) = grey mangrove, white mangrove (avicennia marina) – roasted seeds, cooked cotyledons of seeds are edible; may contain toxic compunds; (The DNA of Singapore, Useful Tropical Plants)

उप्पुकरि = dry curry with salt optionally with grated coconut

उरुंडॆ बूरु, अग्निबळ्ळि/एरुंबळ्ळि/कंगुबळ्ळि/मिंचिनबळ्ळि/ककरलता/(क), कनफटा/कनफूटी/कपालफोड़ी(हिं), इंद्रवल्ली(सं) = balloon vine, love-in-a-puff, heart pea, heartseed (cardiospermum halicacabum) – leaves, fruits, seeds, young shoots, seed-oil are edible; prohibited for pregnants;

उर्कि/उर्किल्, तुथ्थि/तुरुबि(क), पेटारी(कॊं), कंघी(हिं), अतिबला(सं) = indian abutilon, indian mallow, country mallow (abutilon indicum) – roasted seeds are edible; seeds are purgative; leaves are edible; (thuthi keerai kootu, Shodhganga)(see also althaea officinalis, malva sylvestris, malva pusilla);

उर्द्, उद्दु(क), उरद्/उड़द्(हिं) = black gram, urad/mungo bean (vigna mungo) – seeds, sprouts, green pods, leaves are edible

उळ्ळिपजिर्/पच्चॆउळ्ळि, गन्दना/गंधना/हरा प्याज(हिं) = leek/leeks (allium ampeloprasum)raw/cooked bulbs, leaves, roots, raw flowers are edible;

ऊदलु(क), साँवा(हिं) = barnyard millet (echinochloa frumentacea)

ऋणात्मक किन्निधान्य, नकारात्मक किन्निधान्य = negative millet

ऎक्क, बिळिऎक्क(क), मदार(हिं), अर्क/राजार्क/शिवपुष्पक/दिव्यपुष्पिका/क्षीरच्छद/सूर्याह्व/तूलफल(सं) = crown flower (calotropis gigantea) – poisonous? NOT EDIBLE? – The central part of the flower is candied and used as a sweetmeat. An alcoholic drink is made from the leaves. The plant yields a manna (gum). The central part of the flower is candied and used as a sweetmeat.
(Plants for A Future, Useful Tropical Plants)

ऎड्डेमुंचि, ऒळ्ळॆमेणसु/करिमॆणसु/काळुमॆणसु(क) = black pepper (piper nigrum) – seeds are edible

ऎण्णॆरॊट्टि = rotti fried in oil unlike the usual ones fried or roasted on tava/pan

ऎण्मॆ/ऎड्मॆ/ऎळ्ळ्, तिल(सं) = sesame, gingelly (sesamum indicum) – seeds, leaves are edible

ऎर्मॆक्कुलवु, उगणिबळ्ळि/उगनिबळ्ळि(क), केदारी/बोंडवेल(कॊं), അടന്പു(म) = (lettsomia elliptica,argyreia elliptica) – leaves are edible; seeds can be eaten (Shodhganga)

ऎलिकॆबि तप्पु, इलिकिवि सॊप्पु/जुम्कि हू/हाळ मूलंगि सॊप्पु/मूषिकपर्णी(क), mulshevi/muyalccevi(म), sadamandee/panom/undrachi(कॊं), हिरनखुरी/kirankuri?(सं) = lilac/red tassel flower, purple sow thistle, cupid’s shaving brush, floras paintbrush (emilia sonchifolia) – raw/cooked leaves, shoots are edible; powdered plant used for marcha cake

ऎलॆमुरि, अल्लूरि/ऎलॆवरिगॆ(क), kashawada(कॊं), कसौंडी/कसौंडा(हिं), श्रूषा/कर्कश/अरिमर्द/कासमर्द/कासमर्दक/कासारि/कालङ्कत/पत्त्रोपस्कर/जरण/विमर्द/ (सं) = algarrobilla, kasunda, baner (senna/cassia sophera, cassia esculenta) – young leaves, young pods, seeds are edible; roasted leaves and seeds are used as coffee substitute

ऎल्यकंचल, कार्चिकायि(क) = african cucumber, balsam apple/pear (momordica balsamina)

ऎल्यमुंचि, सण्ण मॆणसु(क), मिर्च(हिं) = tabasco pepper (capsicum frutescens) – fruits, seeds, cooked leaves are edible; leaves are used as potherb?; (Plants For A Future, Semi-Breaking News: Chili Pepper Leaves Are Edible!)

एलक्कि, इलायची(हिं), एला/एल्ल्का(सं) = cardamom (elettaria cardamomum) – cardamom pods/seeds are used as flavourings and cooking spices; young shoots can be eaten raw; leaves can be used as food wrappers while cooking (Koppert Cress: Cardamom Leaves)

एकनायकॆ, एकनायक हण्णु(क), പൊൻകൊരണ്ടി/ചെറുകൊരണ്ടി/ഏകനായകം(म), निसळ बोंडी/कुळकुळटा/किरमीरा/सप्तरंगी(कॊं), एकनायक/सप्तचक्र/सप्तरंगी/पीतिका/स्वर्णमूलः(सं) = lolly berry, chinese salacia (salacia reticulata, salacia chinensis, casearia esculenta, salacia oblonga) – fruits are edible; casearia esculenta cooked leaves are also edible

ऒकिनावा/ओकिनावा बसळॆ = okinawan spinach, edible gynura (gynura bicolor) – fresh/cooked leaves and young shoots are edible; (see also आयुष्य बसळॆ/gynura procumbens, चीनि बसळॆ/gynura pseudochina, gynura divaricata);

ऒक्कबुगरि/पारॆबुगरि, नीलबदरी(सं) = huckleberry (vaccinium parvifolium) – fruits are edible;

ऒडिल्/ऒडिल, अंचि/हंचि = griddle

ऒरल्, उजिड्/उजिर् = mortar (कुट्टाणि = pestle)

ऒल्लॆकॊडि, दॊड्डनॆक्करॆ(क) = (memecylon malabaricum) – medicinal but not edible

ओम, अजवाइन(हिं) = ajwain, ajowan caraway, carom seeds (trachyspermum ammi) – fruits are edible; plant/seed-oil is used for flavourings

ओटेपुळि/ओंटॆपुळि/कर्क्’पुळि/एसल्’पुळि/बड्ड्पुळि/मंतुपुळि, पणंपुळि(कॊ), उप्पागॆ(क), कुडंपुळि/कोडंपुळि(म) = gamboge, brindleberry (garcinia gummi-gutta, garcinia cambogia) – used for काचंपुळि, oil

ओड् = clay pan

कक्कॆनेरळॆ, काकजम्बू/काक(सं) = (ardisia humilis) – leaves are edible (Nutritional evaluation of some wild edible plants of Meghalaya State in Inda and their ethnobotanical importance)

कडल्’कनॆ, कडल्’दकणॆ = seaweed (कनॆ, कणॆ = weed)

कडल्’बसळॆ/कडल्’पद्पॆ = sea purslane (sesuvium portulacastrum) – raw/cooked leaves are edible after repeated soaking/boiling in fresh water to remove salt; leaves can be pickled;

कडीर्, कळ्ळंगडलॆ = eskoba (sida retusa) – cooked leaves are edible; leaves are used for herbal tea; (see also sida rhombifolia);

कड्लॆ/कडलॆ, चना(हिं), चणक(सं) = bengal gram (cicer arientinum) – grains, tender leaves are edible

कणक = dough

कणककत्ति = dough cutter, scraper pastry

कणिलॆ = bamboo shoot (bambusoideae, dendrocalamus strictus); cooked bamboo shoot is edible; better to cook after soaking and changing water several times; (see also पंजिबॆत्तॊ, पंजिबॆद्, तूरॊळ्र्)

कत्ति अवरॆ, कड्प कत्ति अवरॆ, चप्पटे अवरॆ(क) = jack bean (canavacia ensiformis) – seeds, tender pods, young foliage are edible; beans should be boiled to remove toxicity – lectin.

कन्नॆतप्पु, कन्नॆसॊप्पु/गुब्बच्चिबाळॆ/गुब्बच्चिबसळॆ/hittagani(क), केना(कॊं), काना/कनकव्वा/बुचना(हिं) = bengal/asiatic dayflower, whiskered commelina, tropical spiderwort (commelina benghalensis, commelina communis) – cooked young leaves, stems, rhizomes of commelina benghalensis are edible; raw/cooked leaves, flowers, young shoots of commelina communis are edible;

कन्याबूरु/कन्याबेर्/नन्नारिबूरु/नन्नारिबेर्, हालुबळ्ळि(क), क्षीरिणी, कराला/भद्रवल्लिका/गन्धवल्कल(सं) = indian sarsaparilla (hemidesmus indicus) – like true sarsaparilla root syrup is used for flavouring (see also नामद बेरु, माकळि)

कप्प्, पिंगाणि = cup

कप्पुप्पु (कप्पु+उप्पु), काला नमक्(हिं) = black salt

कप्पुबुगरि, कालबदरी(सं) = blackberry (rubus fruticosus) – fruits are edible;

कबरा/hainsaa/kanthara(हिं), इक्षुगन्धा/इक्षुर/कोकिलाक्ष/himsra/अहिंस्र/kanthari/cabra/तीक्ष्ण/कण्टक तीक्ष्णगन्धा(सं) = caper bush, flinders rose (capparis spinosa) – fruits, buds, leaves are edible; buds are used for pickles, salads, pasta, spaghetti etc (see also मुळ्ळुकत्तरि/capparis zeylanica);

कम्क्वाट् = kumquat/cumquat, good luck plant (citrus japonica) – cooked fruits are used in jellies, marmalades;

कय्येर् पुळि, हुळिगौरि/बॆट्टबंडॆ(क), ഞാറന്‍പുളി(म), व्हडलो रानभेंडो/काटेरी भेंडी(कॊं), वन गुढ़ल(हिं), शठम्बष्ठी(सं) = hill hemp bendy, wild hibiscus (hibiscus furcatus, hibiscus hispidissimus) – cooked leaves, root tea are edible; (Shodhganga);

करंडॆ, कौळि/कवळि/कवळॆ/कौरि(क) = bengal currant, carandas plum, karanda (carissa carandas) – raw/cooked unripe/ripe fruits are edible; unripe fruits are used for pickles, ripe fruits are used for jams, puddings, jellies etc;

करिदूप, राळधूप(क) = indian white mahogany, black dammar, black dhup (canarium strictum) – seed kernel is edible and its oil is used in confectionery (Future prospects for the critically endangered medicinally important species, Canarium Strictum Roxb. A review);

कर्कुंबुड/बूदिकुंबुड, बूदुकुंबळ(क), पेठा(हिं) = wax gourd, ash/white/winter/tallow gourd (benincasa hispida, benincasa cerifera) – fruits, flowers/buds, tendrils, leaves, young shoots edible;

कर्जूर/खर्जूर/कज्जूर/गज्जिर/उत्तुत्ते = date (phoenix dactylifera) – fruits, sap are edible; seeds for coffee substitute; fruits/sap for sugar;

कर्बु/कर्ंबु, गन्ना(हिं), मधुतरु/इक्षु/रसेक्षु/चाष(सं) = sugar cane (saccharum barberi, saccharum edule, saccharum officinarum) – used for making sugar, jaggery etc;

कलमॊंडिन् चित्पुलि = calamondin/calamansi orange, calamondin/philippine lime (citrus × microcarpa https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Calamansi) – fruits are edible and used to flavor foods & drinks and making marmalade;

कलॊंजि/कप्पल्’जीर्दरि, कलौंजी(हिं), कृष्णजीर/स्थूलजीरक/वान्तिशोधनी/तिलापत्या/उपकालिका(सं) = black cumin, black caraway, nigella, kalonji, fennel/nutmeg flower, roman coriander (nigella sativa, nigella indica) – seeds are used as a spice/flavour (see also कारवी, काट्’जीर्दरि, कालजीर्दरि/काळजीरिगॆ)

कल्बारॆ, बॆट्टबाळॆ/काडुबाळॆ(क), കല്ലുവാഴ/കാട്ടുവാഴ/മലവാഴ(म), जंगली केळीं/रान क्यांळे/चवेणी/कावदर/रानकेळ(कॊं), जंगली केला(हिं) = (ensete superbum) – fruits, seeds, blossoms, pseudo-stems are edible;

कल्ललांबु = paddy straw mushroom, straw mushroom (volvariella volvacea?)

कल्लुरुक्कि, കൽച്ചീര/കല്ലുരുക്കി/നെയ്ചീര/നെയ്‌ത്തുമ്പ(म), = graceful pouzolzsbush (pouzolzia zeylanica) – cooked tender leaves, young shoots are edible;

कल्ल्’तुलसि = opal/purple/red basil (ocimum basilicum)? – leaves, shoots, seeds are edible (see also काट्’तुळसि, तुळसि, निंबॆ तुलसी, परॆंगि तुलसि, कामकस्तूरि);

कल्ल्’शुंठि, अगरुशुंठि/कल्लुशुंठि(क), kathu-inshi-kua(म), बनअदरक/नरकचूर(हिं), तीक्ष्णाग्र/कर्पूरहरिद्रा/ahava/avanti/kolanjana/kumbhika/sthulagranthi/viranam(सं) = bitter ginger, shampoo ginger, pinecone ginger (zingiber zerumbet) – raw/cooked young rhizomes, young flower spikes, cooked leaves, young shoots are edible; leaves are used as food wrappers;

कवटॆ/कवट्टॆ/कामटॆ/गावटॆमुळ्ळु, जिम्मि/अलमत्ति धूप(क), तेजफल/तुम्बुरु/तिम्रू/नेपाली धनिया(हिं), तेजवल्कल/महामुनि/सौर(सं) = winged prickly ash, indian tooth ache tree (zanthoxylum armatum, zanthoxylum alatum) – seed powder, young leaves used as condiment; fruit peel is used as a spice

कवटॆकायि/कवुंटॆ/पॆताल/पॆट्नोलि, जुम्मनकायि/जुम्मिनकायि/काडुमॆणसु(क), बदरंग/त्रिफल(हिं) = indian prickly ash, ivy-rue (zanthoxylum rhetsa) – fruits, immature fresh/dried seeds, bark are used as spice; leaves are also are edible & tender leaves are used as seasoning

कसूरी मेथी(हिं), नुंगेल् मेंतेतप्पु = dried fenugreek leaves

कहिसंजीविनि(क), वितापप्रजाति(हिं) = cinchona, red cinchona, quina (cinchona pubescens) – quinine, is used as a bitter flavouring in tonics, drinks, baked goods etc

कहुं(सं) = prickly lettuce, scarole, milk thistle, wild opium (lactuca serriola) – raw/cooked young leaves are edible (see also सलाद्/lactuca sativa, काट्’सलाद्/lactuca indica)

कळ्ळि पर्ंद्, पापासुकळ्ळि(क), नागफनी(हिं), कन्दामृता/कन्थका/कन्थरी/कुलिशद्रुम/तीक्ष्णकण्टका/विमला/क्रूरगन्धा/दुष्प्रवेशा(सं) = prickly pear, barbary fig, cactus pear, spineless cactus (opuntia ficus-indica) – flowers, seeds, raw/cooked/dried ripe fruits, cooked leaves/cladodes are edible; stems can be used for extracting edible gum; (1, 2)

कंचल/कंचोळ्, करेला(हिं) = bitter melon/squash/gourd (momordica charantia)

कंचिकायि, हॆरळॆकायि/दॊड्डिलकायि = mandarin orange (citrus reticulata) – are edible fruit used for pickle, tokku, gojju

(कडॆपिकल् द) कंजि = upper oval part of grinder

कंड्ला, कांदलॆ/निज कंड्ला/ओळ्ळे कंड्ला(क), പനച്ചിക്കണ്ടല്‍/പ്രാന്തൻ കണ്ടൽ(म), कोंदळं/डुंबी/कामो/कांदळ/कुरनो(कॊं), bhora/खमो(हिं) = loop-root mangrove, red mangrove, asiatic mangrove, boriti poles, red mangrove, simple-cymed mangrove (rhizophora mucronata) – young shoots, cooked fruits are edible;

कंबळि पर्ंद्, कंबळिहण्णु(क) = mulberry (morus) – fruits are edible;

काकमुंचि/काकॆमुंचि, काकमुंजि/मुळ्ळुकाकमुंजि/काकमाजि/अंबुसॊंडॆबळ्ळि/हॆब्बुसॊंडॆ/मुळ्ळुमुस्त(क) = purple fruited pea eggplant (solanum trilobatum)

काकमुंचि/काकॆमुंचि, काकमुंजि/गणिकॆ/गणकि/कासि/काचि/करिकाचि = black/garden nightshade (solanum nigrum)

काट्’अर्ति, काड अत्ति(क), गोबला/कगशा/काला उम्बर/कटगूलरिया/फल्गु(हिं) = hairy fig, devil fig (ficus hispida) – fruits, young leaves edible

काट्’ओम/गुड्डॆ ओम, ഈച്ചേക്കൊല്ലി/കാട്ടയമോദകം/മണ്ണെണ്ണച്ചെടി/നാറ്റച്ചെടി(म), सुगंध वास्तूक(हिं) = wormseed, mexican/spanish-tea (dysphania ambrosioides) – cooked leaves, soaked rinsed & cooked seeds are edible; raw leaves should not be consumed in large quantities; tender leaves are used as potherb, condiment & tea substitute; essential seed oil is highly toxic & may lead to death;

काट्’ओम, काडु ओम(क), चाकवत(कॊं), बथुआ(हिं) = pigweed, lamb’s quarters, melde, goosefoot, manure weed, fat-hen (chenopodium album) – seeds, leaves, young shoots are edible; eaten in moderation due to high levels of oxalic acid

काट्’कडलॆ = dwarf mallow, low mallow, small mallow, round-leaved mallow (malva pusilla) – raw/cooked leaves, unmature seeds are edible; (see also althaea officinalis, malva sylvestris, abutilon indicum, sida cordifolia)

काट्कल्लंटॆ/काट्कल्यटॆ/काडकल्लटॆ, सुंडकायि/सुंडॆकायि/काडुबदनॆ(क) = turkey berry, prickly nightshade (solanum torvum) – fruits are edible

काट्’कुंबुड, काडुगुंबळ/काडुकंचि(क), बोंवरो/पेटारी(कॊं), पम्परक्कुम्पिल्(म), पिण्डालु/पिण्डार(हिं), पिण्डारः(सं) = many-fruited trevia (trevia nudiflora, mallotus nudiflorus, trevia polycarpa, mallotus polycarpus) – fruits edible

काट्’कुंबुड, काडुगुंबळ/adavigummathiga(क), शॆंडवेल(कॊं), कांटा आलू(हिं), आपस्तम्भिनी/चित्रफला/लिङ्गजा/लिङ्गिनी/शिववल्ली = five leaf yam, mountain yam, wild yam, prickly yam (dioscorea pentaphylla) – cooked roots, male inflorescences, young leaves are edible; edible species have opposite leaves, poisonous species have alternate leaves;

काट्’केनॆ, दैवकंद/हंदिगड्डॆ/सूरणगड्डॆ(क), കാട്ടുചേന (म), कोळ्याचो माड/सरडेचो माड/सूर्णु/देवकंद/जटाशंकर/पेणघागरा/तवकीराच झाड(कॊं), बाघ मूंछ/देवकन्द(हिं), देवकन्द/सूर्ण(सं) = polynesian arrowroot, east indian arrowroot, tahiti arrowroot, african arrowroot, batflower (tacca leontopetaloides) – raw/roasted mature roots are edible & rich source of starch called tahiti/fiji but have to be washed throughly to get rid off poisonous taccalin;

काट्’केनॆ, शेवळा/मोगरी/कंद(कॊं), जंगली सूरन/जंगली जमीकन्द(हिं) = dragon stalk yam, voodoo plant (amorphophallus commutatus) – cooked tender inflorescences (flowering stalks) are edible; all parts of plant contain toxic calcium oxalate;

काट्’जीर्दरि/काट्’जीरिगॆ, काडुजीरिगॆ(क), सोमराजी(सं) = (vernonia anthelmintica, centrantherum anthelmenticum, baccharoides anthelmintica) – plant is used as a spice for seasoning curries (see also कलॊंजि, कारवी, कालजीर्दरि/काळजीरिगॆ)

काट्’तजंक्, अडवि तंगडि(क), പൊന്നാവീരം(म), = hairy senna, woolly senna (senna hirsuta) – cooked leaves, young pods, roasted seeds are edible; seeds are used as coffee substitute after removing toxic toxalbumin by roasting;

काट्’तारॆ, काडुईचलु/काडुतॆंगु/बॆट्टतॆंगु/दडिसॆ/धूढ्साल(क), അലട്ടിത്തേങ്ങ/കാരംപനൈ/കാട്ടുതേങ്ങ്/മലന്തെങ്ങ്/ഞെട്ടിപ്പന, धूडसाल(कॊं) = wight’s sago palm, wild coconut, arenga (arenga wightii griff) – pith, tender leaves, sap are edible; starch, alcohol-free wine/toddy extracted from stem; sap is used for jaggery (Pilikula, Arenga wightii Griff.¾A unique source of starch and beverage for Muthuvan tribe of Idukki district, Kerala)

काट्’तुरॆ, कहिसोरॆ(क) = bitter bottle gourd (lagenaria vulgaris)

काट्’तुळसि, अर्जक/एकपत्त्रिका/ब्रह्मगर्भ/कवरा/अजगन्धा/पूतिमयूरिका/अजगन्धिका/बस्तगन्धा/बर्बरीक = clove basil (ocimum gratissimum) – leaves, seeds are edible; leaves are used for salads, flavouring, herbal tea (see also तुळसि, कामकस्तूरि, निंबॆ तुलसी, परॆंगि तुलसि)

काट्’नीरुळ्ळि, भीमन उळ्ळागड्डॆ/अदविईरुळ्ळि/दॊड्ड काडुबॆळ्ळुळ्ळि/नायिउळ्ळागड्डि/नरिईरुळ्ळि(क), कोलकंद/सापकांदा/जंगली कांदा(कॊं), kanthanga/kattulli(म), जंगलि प्याज़/बन प्याज़(हिं), अश्मन्तक/कोलकन्द/पञ्जल/पुटालु/पुटकन्द/वनपलाण्डु/कृमिघ्न(सं) = indian squill (urginea indica (roxb) kunth) – bulbs of the plant is used as vegetable (Some Edible Plants of Bundelkhand Region of India) – but drimia indica is poisonous

काट्’पट्लकायि, काडुपडुवलकायि(क) = wild snake gourd (trichosanthes cucumerina)

काट्’पदॆंगि/काड्पदॆंजि = (vigna adenantha, phaseolus adenanthus) – green pods, cooked seeds, tubers are edible

काट्’पद्पे, कीरॆसॊप्पु(क) = green/red/slim/smooth amaranth, smooth pigweed (amaranthus hybridus) – cooked leaves, stems, seeds are edible;

काट्’पद्पे, कीरॆसॊप्पु/dagglarive(क), जंगली चौलाई(हिं), तण्डुलिय(सं) = slender/green amaranth (amaranthus viridis);

काट्’पीरॆ/काट्’कंचल, मडहागलकायि/सिहिहागलकायि(क), करटोली/पजिलॆ?(कॊं), ककोड़ा(हिं), कर्कोटकी/कर्कोटी(सं) = kantola/contola, spiny/spine gourd (momordica dioica) – fruits, tender shoots/leaves, roots are edible, seed oil extracted

काट्’पीरॆ/कैपॆपीरॆ/नागताळि, कहिहीरॆ(क), कोडु घोसाळे(कॊं), जालिनी(सं) = spicy gourd, wild/bitter luffa (luffa amara);

काट्’पुळि/परॆंगिपुळि, काडुहुणासॆ/सीमॆहुणसॆ/दॊरहुणसॆ/इलाचिकायि/इलाच्-हुंचिकायि(क), चिंच बुलाई/विलायती चिंच/फिरंगी चिंच(कॊं), सिंगड़ी/विलायती इमली/गंगा इमली/गंगा जलेबी/जंगल जलेबी(हिं) = monkeypod, camachile fruit (pithecellobium dulce) – fruit pulp is edible; pulp is edible;

;काट्’पॊन्नॆ, किरिहॊन्नॆ(क), joshishmathi(सं) = (calophyllum apetalum) – fruits are edible;

काट्’पॊंगरॆ, कीचिगॆ/काडुहॊंगरक/हालिवाण(क) = (erythrina stricta);

काट्’बच्चंगायि, काडुकवडेकायि(क) = colocynth, bitter apple/cucumber (citrullus colocynthis) – fuits, seeds, seed-oil are edible;

काट्’बज्जयि, काटडिकॆ/काडुकंगु/पांडवर अडिकॆ(क) = dickson palm, ivory crownshaft palm, wild betel nut (pinanga dicksonii) – eaten like arecanut by tribals;

काट्’बादामि/काट्’बादामु = country/indian/malabar/sea/tropical-almond (terminalia catappa) – young fruits, mature seeds, seed oil are edible; leaves can be used as food wrappers

काट्’बिल्वपत्रॆ, काडुबिल्वपत्रॆ(क) = barberry (barberis bael, limonia alata) – fruits are edible?

काट्’बॆंडॆ/काडकस्तूरि, कस्तूरिबॆंडॆ/काडुकस्तूरि/काडुबॆंडॆ(क), कस्तूरी भॆंडी(कॊं), मुश्कदाना/कस्तूरीदाना/जंगली भिंडी(हिं), लताकस्तूरिका(सं) = musk/rose mallow, musk/ornamental/yorka okra, abelmosk, ambrette, tropical jewel hibiscus (abelmoschus moschatus, hibiscus abelmoschus) – leaves, young shoots, young pods, seeds are edible; seeds are added to coffee;(see also althaea officinalis, malva sylvestris, malva pusilla)

काट्’मंजल्/काट्’अरसिन/कासतूरिमंजल्, कस्तूरिअरिशिण(क), കസ്തൂരി മഞ്ഞൾ/കാട്ടുമഞ്ഞൾ(म), रान हळद(कॊं), जंगली हल्दी(हिं), कामिनी/अरण्यरजनी/अरण्यहलदी/पीतकद्रुम(सं) = wild turmeric, aromatic turmeric (curcuma aromatica) – rhizome powder can be substituted for turmeric powder;

काट्’मल्लिगॆ, काडुमल्लिगॆ(क), रान मोगरी/रान मोगरा/कुसर(कॊं), मुद्गर(सं) = malabar jasmine (jasminum malabaricum) – fruits are edible (see also मल्लिगॆ, जाजि, सण्ण मल्लिगॆ, malakolage)

काट्’शतावरि/परॆंगि शतावरि/शतावरि = asparagus, wild asparagus, garden asparagus, sparrow grass (asparagus officinalis) – young shoots are edible; roasted seeds are coffee substitute; eating shoots in large quantities may harm kidneys (see also उदुरि/उद्रि/शतावरि)

काट्’सलाद्, जंगली सलाद्(हिं) = indian lettuce, milkweed, wild lettuce (lactuca indica, lactuca brevirostris/inermis) – raw/cooked leaves cooked tender stems are edible; as the plant becomes more toxic & narcotic avoid eating when it starts budding & flowering; (see also सलाद्/lactuca sativa, कहुं/lactuca serriola)

काट्’संपायि/गोसंपायि/गोसंपिगॆ/बूतसंपगॆ, काडुसंपिगॆ/गॊसंपिगॆ/देवकणगिलॆ(क), गुलैन्ची/गुलाचिन(हिं), क्षीरचम्पक(सं) = (plumeria acutifolia, plumeria rubra) – flowers are edible;

कानकल्लटॆ = (cayratia mollissima) – cooked unripe fruits are edible;

काबूल् कड्लॆ/कडलॆ, काबुली चना(हिं), चणक/वातल/वाजिभक्ष्य/वंशवर्ण(सं) = chickpea, garbanzo (cicer arietinum) – grains, tender leaves are edible;

कामकस्तूरि/बॊल्द् कामकस्तूरि/थाय् तुलसी, बिळि कामकस्तूरि/सिहि तुळासि/कसकसॆ/नारंबेळॆगिड?(क), सब्जा/नगदबावरी/बबरी/बबुईतुलसी/फ़लूदा/वनतुलसी/जंगलीतुलसी/काट वजीरा/आजीला/ममरी(हिं), मञ्जरीक/खरपुष्पा/बर्बरी/वनबर्बरिका/मुखार्जक/कृष्णपर्णी/स्थानचञ्चला/सूक्ष्मपत्त्रक/सुप्रसन्नक/शोफहारिन्(सं) = basil, great/sweet/genovese basil (ocimum basilicum) – leaves, shoots, seeds are edible (see also काट्’तुळसि, तुळसि, निंबॆ तुलसी, परॆंगि तुलसि, कल्ल्तुलसि);

कायेर् मर, हॆम्मुष्टि/इट्टि/कासर्क/मुष्टिमर/नंजिनकोरडु/वीषमुष्टि(क), കാഞ്ഞിരം(म), कजरो/काजरा(कॊं), जहर/कजरा//कुचला/bailewa/chibbinge(हिं), गरद्रुम/कारस्करः/किम्पाक/कुपाक/रम्यफल/तिन्दु/वरम्बरा/विषमुष्टि/विषतिन्दु(सं) = nux vomica, strychnine tree, poison nut, semen strychnos, snake-wood, semen strychnos, quaker buttons, snake-wood, strychnine tree (strychnos nux-vomica) – raw fruit flesh is edible but seeds are extremely toxic and may lead to cardiac arrest; NOT EDIBLE;

कारि/कारॆ, कारॆमुळ्ळु/ollepode/काकिगिड(क) = (canthium coromandelicum, canthium parviflorum) – fruits, leaves are edible

कारॆकायि, कारॆकायिगिड/मग्गारॆ(क), മലങ്കാര/karacchulli(म), घेला/गेळkhajkanda/पेरअळू(कॊं), मैनफल(हिं), मदन/पिंड/शल्पक(सं) = mountain pomegranate, spiny randia, false guava, thorny bone-apple, common emetic nut, myna tree (catunaregam spinosa, randia floribunda) – cooked fruits are edible; raw fruit is used as fish poison;

कारेकायि = dried date

कालजीर्दरि/काळजीरिगॆ/करिजीरिगॆ/कप्पुजीरिगॆ, कहिजीरिगॆ(क), സഹജീരകം(म), कालाजीरा/कालीजीरी/हिमाली जीरा/काश्मीरीजीरा/शाहीजीरा/शाहाजीरा(हिं), उद्गारशोधन/काश्मीरजीरका/दन्तशोधनी(सं) = black cumin, blackseed, black caraway, great pignut (bunium bulbocastanum, carum bulbocastanum, bunium persicum, elwendia persica) – seeds, taproot are edible; plant is used as a spice for seasoning and as a vegetable (see also कलॊंजि, कारवी, काट्’जीर्दरि)

कावला(कॊं) = hairy smithia (smithia hirsuta) – tender leaves, shoots are edible

कावलि = skillet, cast iron frying pan with flat bottom

काशिकुंबुड/काचिकुंबुड/कासिकुंबुड, बूदुकुंबळ/करिकुंबळ(क), कुम्हड़ा(हिं), कुम्भफला/आलाबु/तैलस्पन्दा(सं) = (cucurbita pepo var ovifera) – fruits, flowers/buds, tendrils, leaves, young shoots edible

कांपर् पुळि, किरिहुलिपॆ/बिळिकॊम्मॆ(क) = (antidesma acidum/diandrum) – young leaves, fruits are edible; mature fruits are used for pickle; (see also बापुथ/antidesma montanum)

किन्व = quinoa (chenopodium quinoa) – cooked seeds, raw/cooked leaves are edible; toxic saponins, oxalic acid should be removed by cooking;

किन्निधान्य, किरुधान्य(क), लघुधान्य/लङ्गुरा/वर्णभेदिनी(सं) = millet

किरातकड्डि, नॆलबेवु(क), നിലവേപ്പ്കിരിയത്ത്(म), kiratin(कॊं), कीरायत(हिं) = green chireta, creat, nilavembu, kirayat, chuan xin lian, king of bitters (andrographis paniculata) – leaves are edible;

किरितेक्कि/किरितग्गि/गंटुभारंगि(क), भारंगी(हिं), भारङ्गी/बर्बरीक(सं) = bleeding-heart plant (clerodendrum serratum, clerodendrum indica, rotheca serrata) – young leaves, young shoots, inflorescence, roots are edible;

किरुगुळ्ळ/किरुचुंडॆ(क) = indian nightshade (solanum lasiocarpum, solanum indicum) – fruits used for curries/condiments;

किलिंबिरि, बावॆ = cream

कीवि = kiwi, chinese gooseberry (actinidia deliciosa) –

कुक्कु, मावु(क), आम(हिं) = mango (mangifera indica) – fruit, fruit peels, tender leaves, flowers, cooked/roasted/soaked seeds are edible

कुक्कुद मिडि, कच्चा आम/केरी(हिं) = raw mango, immature mango fruit

कुक्कुमिडि पॊडि = amchur powder

कुक्कुशुंठि/मंङन्नारि, माविनशुंठि/नॆलमावु/अंबॆकॊंबु/अंबॆअरशिन/अंबॆहळदि(क), कर्पूरहरिद्रा(सं) = mango ginger (curcuma amada, curcuma mangga) – roots/rhizomes are edible and used for pickles, chutneys; cooked flower clusters, raw/boiled young shoots of curcuma mangga are also edible; (see also कल्लुशुंठि/zingiber zerumbet, मांगन्नारि/limnophila indica)

कुटज, कोडमुरक/हलगत्ति/तॊडचग/बॆप्पालॆ/कॊदसालु/कॊर्चि/हाबॆ(क), कुडॉ(कॊं), कुट्टुकप्पुल/कुडिजि(म), कुटज/कडवा इंद्रजव/कुर्चि/धुदि(हिं), गिरिमल्लिका/वत्सक/इंद्रयव/कुटज(सं) = kurchi, conessi tree, conessi bark (holarrhena pubescens) – tender pods are edible

कुटज, कॊडसिगे/कॊडसीगॆ/कुरुटिग/कोरिसिगु(क), कडवा/कर्व इन्द्रजौ(हिं), गिरिमल्लिका/कुटज(सं) = (holarrhena antidysentrica) – flowers are edible;

कुट्टाणि = pestle (ओरल् = mortar)

कुट्टूगोदि, मोथी/कुट्टू/कूटू(हिं) = buckwheat (fagopyrum esculentum) – seeds, leaves are edible; leaves are used like spinach; buckwheat seed is one among most important food allergens causing irritating skin disorders;

कुडिगट्टि, तंबुळिगट्टि = a type of raita prepared using young leaves

कुडु, हुरुळि(क), कुल्टी(हिं) = horse gram (macrotyloma uniflorum) – seed are edible; seeds can be fermented

कुदणॆ/कॊदनॆ/गुदनॆ, सुंडॆ/हुच्चुसॊंडॆ/काडुबदनॆ(क) = thornless turkey berry (solanum pubescens) – fruits are edible

कुप्पि = glass

कुप्पिद तप्पलॆ = glass bowl

कुस्रि, कुसुरि = pulp

कुंटल, कुंटुनेरळॆ/कुन्नेरलु(क) = south indian plum (syzygium caryophyllatum) – fruits, young shoots are edible; young shoots are used for making chutney; fruits are used for sharbat, jam etc;

कुंबुड, कुंबळ(क), कुम्हड़ा(हिं), कुम्भफला(सं) = squash (cucurbita) – fruit with seeds, seeds, flowers, young leaves are edible

कुंबुडद ओडु = hard rind of a squash or an ash gourd or a pumpkin

कुंबुडद बूरु = a squash or an ash gourd or a pumpkin creeper plant

कूलिजोळ, मॆक्के/मुसुकिन जोळ(क), मक्कि/मकै/मकाई/भुट्टा(हिं) = sweet corn, maize, sugar corn, pole corn (zea mays convar saccharata var rugosa) – seeds, young ears, unfurled tassel, young leaves are edible; young leaves are used for corn grass juice;

कूवॆ/कुव्वॆ, तीखुर(हिं) = east indian arrowroot, narrow-leaved turmeric (curcuma angustifolia) – rhizomes’ starch is used in various foods;

कॆपुळ, किस्कार/कुसुमालॆ(क) = (ixora coccinea) – fruits, flowers are edible

कॆरॆंग्, सिहिगॆणसु(क), शकरकंद(हिं) = sweet potato (ipomoea batatas) – roots, stem shoots, leaves are edible

कॆंपु/नॆत्तॆर्/उत्र चित्पुलि, बतावीनिंबू(हिं) = blood orange (citrus × sinensis) – fruits are edible

कॆंपुकुंबुड/चीपॆकुंबुड, करिकुंबळ = (cucurbita maxima) – fruits, flowers/buds, tendrils, leaves, young shoots edible

कॆंपु क्रॊटॊन् = (alternanthera brasiliana) – leaves are used as vegetables;

कॆंपुगुळ्ळ/किरुगुळ्ळ = (solanum anguivi, solanum indicum) – cooked unripe fruits are edible

कॆंपुनॆलनॆल्लि, हजारमणी/लाल भुईंआंवला/chakpa heikru(हिं), भूम्यामलकी/उज्झटा(सं) = chamber bitter, Common leaf-flower, shatterstone, stone-breaker (phyllanthus urinaria) – plant is edible

कॆंपुबसळॆ, लाल् पालक्/पोई(हिं) = malabar spinach, vine spinach, red vine spinach, climbing spinach, creeping spinach, buffalo spinach, ceylon spinach (basella rubra) – leaves, stems are edible; (see also बसळॆ/basella alba)

केदगॆ/केदिगॆ/केदयि/केतगॆ, केवड़ा/केतकी(हिं), केतक/कैतक(सं) = screw-pine (pandanus odoratissimus) – cooked fruits, seeds are edible, leaves used for flavourings/perfumes

केरॆट्/क्यारॆट्, गज्जरि/गजरि(क), गाजर्(हिं) = carrot (daucus carota subsp. sativus) – roots, leaves are edible

केसरि, केसर(हिं), कश्मीरजन्मन(सं) = saffron (crocus sativus) – flower styles, cooked roots are edible; styles are used for flovourings/colourings;

कैपॆपीरॆ/काट्पीरॆ/नागताळि = spicy gourd – see काट्पीरॆ for details

कैबेवु/बेवु, कहिबेवु/बेवु(क), नीम्(हिं), अरिष्ट/निम्ब(सं) = margosa, neem (azadirachta indica) – tender shoots, flowers are edible

कैल् = ladle?

कैल्, गॊनॆ(क) = stalk or bunch of fruits like banana, coconut etc

कॊजक्किलि, क्षोदरस(सं) = crush (fruit crushes) (क्षोदरस = क्षोद + रस = crushed + juice = crush)

कॊद्दॆल् = boiled watery diluted curry with coconut & spices gravy

कौळिगॆ = a cup/vessel

कॊट्टॆमुळ्ळु, बिळिचूरिमुळ्ळु/चळ्ळॆ/गॊट्टॆ/कॊडचि/पार्पुलिगिड(क), ചെറുതുടലി/മലന്തുടലി (म), गाळायी कांट्या झाड/गुटी रानबोर/घाटबोर/घोंट/हाडकी बोर/रानबोर/चुरण/तोरण/तुरण(कॊं), चूरना/तुरण(हिं), घोंट(सं) = woody-fruited/wrinkled jujube, zunna berry (ziziphus caracutta, ziziphus rugosa) – raw/cooked fruit are edible;

कॊत्तंबरि, धनिया(हिं) = coriander, cilantro (corriander before flowering) (coriandrum sativum) – all parts are edible

कॊम्मेसॊप्पु/adukudkan(क), पुनर्नव(आ) = red spiderling, spreading hogweed, tarvine (boerhavia diffusa) – leaves, roots, fruits & seeds are edible (Punarnava Masala Dal Curry, Punarnava chutney)

कॊरल्/कॊरळ्, कदिरु/तॆनॆ(क) = paddy spike, corn ear

कॊरल्’तप्पु, कडिवाळ/बाविन सॊप्पु(क) = mountain currant tree (antidesma menasu/montanum) – fruits are edible

कॊरलॆ/कॊर्ले(क) = brown top millet (urochloa ramosa)

कॊरंट्, गोडंबि(क) = cashewnut

कॊर्ंग्’बुगरि, बकबदरी(सं) = cranberry (vaccinium oxycoccos, vaccinium erythrocarpum, vaccinium macrocarpon) – fruits are edible;

कॊंदॆ/कॊन्नॆ/कक्कॆमर, ब्याटॆमर(क), अरगवाधा(हिं), कुष्ठसूदन/स्वर्णशेफालिका/स्वर्णाङ्ग/व्याघात/अपालङ्क/शम्पात/अपालङ्क/कृतमाल/शणालु /शणालुक/स्वर्णद्रु/मन्थान/अरुज/स्वर्णभूषण/शणालुक/कृतमालक(सं) = cassie, golden shower/rain, indian laburnum (cassia fistula) – young leaves, flower buds, flowers, and pulp of the pods are edible, bark slightly narcotic

कोरिकॊट्टु/कण्णुथ मर्दु, नरिकब्बु/नायिकब्बु, कोशी/केवकंद/पेव(कॊं), केउ/केउकंद(हिं), पुष्करमूल/पुष्करमूलक/मूलपुष्कर/केमुक/कुष्ठ/सामान्य कुष्ठ/आमय/कदाख्य/पावन/उत्पल/रोजयति/पुष्करशिखापुष्करशिफा/पुष्करबीज/पुष्करसागर/पुष्कराङ्घ्रिज/पुष्कराह्वय(सं) = crêpe ginger, malay/spiral/wild ginger, cane-reed, spiral flag (cheilocostus speciosus, costus speciosus, hellenia speciosa) – fruits, cooked rhizomes, tender young shoots are edible;

क्युलान्ट्रॊ, उद्द कॊत्तंबरि = culantro, shadow beni, mexican coriander, bhandhania, long coriander (eryngium foetidum) – raw/cooked leaves, cooked roots and seeds are edible; leaves are used in seasoning, marinating and garnishing; leaves are used as a culinary herb, a substitute for coriander; seeds and roots are used for flavourings;

क्यॆमॊमिल्/ख्यॆमॊमैल्, कर्पूरपुष्प(सं) = chamomile, camomile (matricaria chamomilla, chamaemelum nobile) – dried flowers are used for herbal tea/कषाय

क्वथ = decoction

खट्मि, खटमि/गुलखेरू(हिं) = marsh mallow (althaea officinalis) – flowers, young leaves, roots are edible; (see also malva sylvestris, malva pusilla, abutilon indicum) ;

खदिर, कग्गलि/खदिर/कच्मर/काचु/कादु(क), കരിണ്ടാലി(म), खैर(कॊं), दन्तधावन/गायत्रिन्/खैर/खयर/मदन/पथिद्रुम/पयोर/प्रियसख (हिं), खदिर/खादिरसार/खाद्य/क्षितिक्षम/यूपद्रुम/बालतनय/बालदलक/बालपत्त्रक/रागचूर्ण/कुष्ठकण्टक/वक्रकण्टक/प्रियसख/नेमिवृक्ष/गायत्रिन्/बहुसार/सुसार/श्वेतसार/कृष्णसार/तिक्तसार/जिह्मशल्य/पथिद्रुम/कुष्ठनोदन/यज्ञाङ्ग/सुशल्य/यूपद्रु(सं) = black Catechu (senegalia catechu, acacia catechu) – seeds are edible; catechu extracted from heartwood used as food additive;

खांडव, खाण्डव(सं) = candy

गज्जुग/गज्जिगॆकायि, कांटकरंज/कांटीकरंज//कंटकीकरंजः/कुबेराक्षी/लताकरंजः(हिं,सं) = grey nicker, nicker bean/nut (guilandina bonduc, caesalpinia bonduc/bonducella, caesalpinia crista) – seed oil is used for cooking

गजनिंबॆ/गजलिंबॆ, कुंजी नींबू/नीम्बू(हिं) = lemon (citrus limon, citrus limonum, citrus x limonia) – fruits, flowers are edible; leaves, dried rinds, rind-oil used for flavourings; (see also निंबॆ/लिंबॆ);

गरिकॆ/दूर्वॆ, दूर्वाति/दूर्वा(सं) = bermuda grass, dhoob, dūrvā grass, dubo, dog’s tooth grass, bahama grass, devil’s grass, couch grass, indian doab, arugampul, grama, wiregrass, scutch grass (cynodon dactylon, vilfa stellata) – young leaves can be used for making an edible cooling juice/tea

गरुडकारॆ/दॊड्डकारॆ/बानगारॆकायि/ollekaare/banbugri/pandri = (randia uliginosa?) – adkabaare?

गर्ग/गर्गो/कय्यणि/कैय्यण्णि, गरग/गरगद सोप्पु(क), भ्रिंगराज/केशराज(हिं), गारक/भृङ्गराज(सं) = false daisy, bhringaraj (eclipta prostrata, eclipta erecta) – tender leaves and young shoots are edible

गर्बीज?, कचरी(हिं) = wild melon/cucumber, ulcardo melon (cucumis pubescens) – fruits are edible

गसगसॆ/कसकसॆ, खसखस(हिं) = opium poppy, breadseed poppy (papaver somniferum) – seeds are edible; seed-oil used as flavourings; narcotic;

गसगसॆ पर्ंद्, पांचारा(कॊं) = singapore/jamaica/panama cherry, cotton candy berry, calabura (muntingia calabura) – raw/cooked fruits are edible; leaves are used in herbal tea; fruits are used for cotton candy or candy floss or बोंबॆ मिठायि;

गसि = thick liquid curry with coconut gravy; in sanskrit घसि/घासि means food

गंजि = starch

गंध/श्रीगंध, चंदन/संदल(हिं), चन्दन/चन्द्रद्युति/तिलपर्णक/वर्णकदारु/भद्रश्रय(सं) = sandalwood (santalum album) – bark, heartwood, roots, fruits are edible; roots/heartwood essential oil is used in bakery products for flavouring; bark is chewed;

गंधमुंचि/चिन्नमुंचि, गंधमॆणसु/बालमॆणसु(क), val-milaku/thippali(म), कवाबचीनी/कंकोल/शीतलचीनी/सुगंध मरिच(हिं), गन्धमरिच/द्वीपरेणुक/कक्कोल(सं) = piper cubeba, cubeb, tailed pepper, java pepper (piper cubeba, cubeba officinalis) – dried young fruits are edible; cubeba oil is used as flavouring

गिजिगिजि दै, ‎guluguluppahalli(क), घुनघुनिया(हिं) = devil bean, rattleweed, shack shack, wedge-leaf rattlepod (crotalaria retusa) – flowers, leaves, roasted seeds are edible; plant contain toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids so should be consumed occassionaly in small quantities;

गुजजॆ, कच्चा कटहल्(हिं) = immature jackfruit (artocarpus heterophyllus) – whole young jackfruit is edible except may be thorny outer rind

गुड्डॆगोंकु, गुड्डॆगेरु(क), അലക്കുചേര് /ചേന്‍ക്കുരു/തേങ്കൊട്ട(म), अंबेरी/भल्लातक/भिल्लावा/बिब्बा(कॊं), भिलावा/भिलावां/भिलावन/बिल्लार(हिं), भल्लातक/अह्वला/विषास्या/अग्निमुख/अन्तःसत्त्वा/व्रणकृत्(सं) = marking/dhobi/indian nut, varnish tree (semecarpus anacardium) – ripe false-fruit, seeds, roasted pedicels’ pulp are edible, kernel are edible but shell oil may cause cutaneous eruptions; roasted fruit rinds are also edible;

गुद्दलि = short iron rod with flat bottom used like pestle (गुद्दु = rap)

गुम्मडिगिड/नॆलकुंबळ/भूसक्करॆगड्डॆ(क), മുതുക്ക്(म), घोडवेल/बेंदरवेल/भरडा/भुईकोहळा/दारी/विदारी/birmulo(कॊं), विदारीकन्द/विदारी/बिलाईकन्द/बनकुमड़ा(हिं), भूकुशमंडी/गजवाजिप्रिया/इक्षुगन्धा/कन्दपलाश/स्वादुकन्दा(सं) = kudzu, japanese arrowroot, indian kudzu (pueraria tuberosa/montana/phaseoloides) – roots, leaves, flowers are edible; flowers are used for jelly, syrup, quiche. candy etc; root starch is used in foods; leaves powder is used for salad, curries, herbal tea

गुरॆळ्ळु/हुच्चॆळ्ळु/कारॆळ्ळु/खुरासानि(क), karale(कॊं) = niger, nyger, nyjer, ramtil/ramtilla, inga seed, blackseed (guizotia abyssinica); seeds are edible and used in chutneys, currys; seed oil is used a substitute for linseed/olive oil;

गुलनार(हिं) = carnation, clove pink (dianthus caryophyllus) – petals are edible; used in salads, candies, jellies, cordials, herb butters

गुलाबि = rose (rosa spp) – leaves, buds, petals, fruits/hips of many varieties of roses like rosa rugosa, rosa gallica var. officinalis, ‘the generous gardener’ are edible; leaves, dried buds/petals, hips are used for tea/कषाय; petals are used for sharbat, jellys, jams, salads, candies; hips, after removing seeds, are used for tea, jams, puddings, sauces etc

गुलाबि बागॆ, celabaage/chellebaage/chellebaagi/cheliva/elesujjalubaage/yelesujilbage/sela/selai(क), katu baramareca(म), brind/bukarna/barau/baraulia/bhokra/bhondir/buna/karmaru/kurmru/kalkora/lal/tandai/shishi/sirin/शिरीष/सिरस/सिरिस/सिरसा/सरिस/mathirshi/sirsang/surangru/tandai(हिं), अस्रखदिर/शिरीष ?/शुकतरु?/bhandi/भण्डिर?/भण्डिल?/fanjhi/मृदुपुष्प?(सं) = pink siris, pink silk tree, persian acacia, persian silk tree, silk tree, silktree mimosa, mimosa (albizia julibrissin durazz) – cooked young leaves, flowers, gum are edible; leaves, flowers are used as vegetables; dried leaves used for herbal tea/कषाय; gum can be used as thickener or for chewing; seeds contain toxic amino acids and not edible;

गुल्महर्/सीमॆसंकेश्वर/कॆंपुतुरायि/दोड्ड रत्नगंधि/gentige hoo(क), കാൽവരിപ്പൂവ്(म), गुल्मोहर्(हिं), राज-आभरण(सं) = royal poinciana, flamboyant (delonix regia) – seeds, young seedpods are edible; tree gum is used by food industry;

गुळ्ळ = a variety of brinjal

गूंजि = inner stalk of jackfruit

गॆंदाळि/कॆंदाळि, चॆंदॆंगु(क) = coconut tree yielding reddish variety of coconuts

गॊज्जि, गॊज्जु = different kinds of sauces prepared using leaves, tubers, fruits etc

गॊड्डुगोंकु, गॊड्डुगेरु(क) = cajui, caja acu (anacardium giganteum) – fruits, seeds are edible; fruit is eatern fresh or in juice form; roasted seeds are eaten;

गॊड्डुसार् = watery soup made of tamarind, chilli and other spices and vegetables without pulses or coconut gravy

गॊरजॆपल्लॆ/कंकलिसॊप्पु/चंचलिसॊप्पु(क), kanjaro = false amaranth (digera muricata) – plant is edible

गॊंडॆ, चॆंडुहूवु, गाँडेंफूल(कॊं), गेंदा(हिं) = africian marigold (tagetes erecta) – leaves, flower petals, receptacles are edible; petals are used as food colorants; leaves used as condiment

गोदि/गोधि, गोधुम/गोधूम/गोरक्षजम्बू/अपूप/यवन/गन्धविह्वल/बहुदुग्ध/निस्तुषक्षीर/निस्तुषक्षीरिन्/सुमन(सं) = wheat (triticum) – seed, seed sprouts, young wheatgrass juice are edible;

गोळिमर, आलदमर(क), പേരാൽ(म), बढ़/बड़/बर/बरगद/बट/वट(हिं), वटवृक्ष(सं) = banyan (ficus benghalensis) – raw/ripe fruits, young leaves & shoots are edible; famine food

गोंकु, गेरु(क) = cashew (anacardium occidentale) – false-fruits, nuts, tender leaves/shoots are edible

गौल्यक, शर्करा(हिं) = glucose

चक्कॆ (इजिन्), दाल्चीनि(क,हिं), उत्कटा/त्वक्सार/त्वक्पत्त्र/सैंहल = cinnamon (cinnamomum cassia, laurus cassia, cinnamomum verum) – bark, leaves, buds and their oils are used as flavourings

चक्र पू = star anise

चप्पटॆ कॊरडि = flat whipper/whisk

चप्पंग मर, सप्पंगॆ/पतंगद मर(क), चप्पनं/सप्पनं(म), पतंग्(हिं), पत्तङ्ग/पत्त्राण्य/पट्टरञ्जक/भार्यावृक्ष/सुरङ्गद/रक्तक/रक्तचन्दन/रक्तकाष्ठ(सं) = sappanwood, brazil wood (caesalpinia sappan, biancaea sappan) – wood extract is used in drinks for fragrance; wood dye is used as food colour

चम्च = spoon

चल्ल, हॊळॆमत्ति/नीर्मत्ति(क), अर्जुन/वीरद्रु/इन्द्रतरु/हृद्रोगवैरिन् /श्वसनेश्वर/नदीसर्ज/इन्द्रद्रुम/शिवमल्लक/अश्मरीहर(सं) = arjuna (terminalia arjuna) – seed is edible; bark decoction with milk is used as a beverage

चळ्ळॆ/सॊळ्ळॆ/चळ्ळंगायि/दॊड्डचळ्ळॆ/चिक्कचळ्ळॆ/बॊट्टॆ/चॆड्लु/कॆंदल्/मण्णडिकॆ/चळ्ळंटु/सिंबळदहण्णु?/bankegida/hirisaale(क), लसोड़ा/लसुरा(हिं),अरुणी/उद्दालक/शेलु/शीता/पिच्छिला/आभूतवृक्षक/बहुवार/श्लेषात्मक(सं) = clammy cherry (cordia myxa/obliqua/domestica/latifolis/wallichii) – raw/ripe fruits are edible; raw fruits used for pickles/curries;

चंद्रपाद/समुद्रहाळॆ/समुद्रवल्लि(क), samudrappacha/samudrapala/samudrastokam(म), समुद्रसोंक/गुग्गुळी(कॊं) घाव बेल/समुन्दर का पाट/समुद्र शोख/विधर(हिं), मूर्वा/समुद्रफलक/समुद्रशोष/वृद्धदारु(सं) = elephant creeper, hawaiian baby woodrose, silky elephant glory, woolly morning glory (argyreia speciosa) – fruit pulp, seeds may be edible (Argyreia speciosa (Linn. f.) sweet: A comprehensive review, Shodhganga)

चिक्कु, सपोट(क) = chikoo (manilkara zapota) – ripe fruit is edible

चित्पुलि/चित्रपुळि/चित्तुलि/सित्त्पुळि, कित्तळॆ(क), संतरा/नारंगी(हिं) = orange, sweet orange (citrus × sinensis) – fruits, flowers are edible; fruit rind can be used for flovouring; flowers can be used for tea, curries; seed oil can be used for cooking; setting agent pecting can be extracted from peels

चिय = chia (salvia hispanica) – seeds, leaves are edible; leaves can be used for herbal tea/कषाय (see also अळवि)

चिरुवॆ/तिरुवॆ, जंबॆ/जंबॆकायि/काडुजंबॆ/अरसुतेग(क), जंबू (हिं), कनककुली(सं) = (xylia xylocarpa) – fruits, seeds are edible (Nutrient and chemical evaluation of raw seeds of Xylia xylocarpa: an underutilized food source, Useful Tropical Plants)

चीनिकळ्ळि/पिताय/ड्रागन् पर्ंद् = dragon fruit, pitaya, piyahaya (hylocereus undatus) – fruits are edible; (see also कळ्ळि पर्ंद्);

चीनिकायि/केंपुकुंबुड/बट्टल्’कुंबुड, सिहिकुंबळ(क), कद्दू/कददू/सीताफल(हिं) = pumpkin (cucurbita pepo) – fruit, seeds, flowers, leaves are edible

चीनि नीरुळ्ळि = chinese onion

चीनिपच्चॆ, चीनकपर्णसि(सं) = bok choy, pak choy, pak choi, pok choi (brassica rapa chinensis) – leaves, young stems are edible; seeds can be used for extracting edible oil;

चीनिपजिर्, चीन की घास(हिं), चीनघास(सं) = china grass, agar agar

चीनि बसळॆ, তেৰা পাঈবী/tera paibi(मणिपुरि) = chinese gynura, daun dewa (gynura pseudochina) – cooked leaves are edible; (see also ऒकिनावा बसळॆ/gynura bicolor, आयुष्य बसळॆ/gynura procumbens, gynura divaricata);

चीनि बॊल्द् बसळॆ/चीनि पच्चॆ बसळॆ = bai bei san qi (gynura divaricata) (see also ऒकिनावा बसळॆ/gynura bicolor, आयुष्य बसळॆ/gynura procumbens, चीनि बसळॆ/gynura pseudochina);

चूरिमुळ्ळु/तूरिमुळ्ळु, चूरिमुळ्ळु/करिचूरिमुळ्ळु/करिसूरिमुळ्ळु/मुळ्ळण्णु/मूळ्ळुहण्णु/बरिगे/बळिगे/पर्गि/परगि/परिगॆ/harasurali/कणॆरिगिड/सुरिमुळ्ळु(क), വന്‍തുടലി(म), कणेरी झाड/बुर्गी/बुरेगी/मांसतोडी/येरूणी(कॊं), कोकल बेर(हिं), बहुकण्टक/कर्कन्धू/सृगालकोलि(सं) = jackal/wild/small-fruited/oblique-leaved jujube (ziziphus oenoplia) – berries are edible

चॆप्पॆवीणॆ = mandoline slicer

चॆप्पॆल् = chips

चॆरी/परॆंगि बॊगॊरि, कळित/कॆंपुहण्णु(क), विलायती मकोय/काकनज/चॆरी(हिं), प्रबदर(सं) = cherry (prunus spp, prunus avium, prunus cerasus) – fruits, blossoms, leaves are edible; blossoms & leaves used for pickles; leaves are used as food wrappers; blossoms are used in tea/soups, bark used for medicinal tea; seeds/pits contain poisonous cyanide

चॆंबळ्ळि, सन्यासिगड्डॆ/केंबळ्ळि/संबारबळ्ळि(क), chemparavalli/semparavalli(म) = (ampelocissus indica) – raw fruits are used for pickle; (Checklist of wild edible plants of Aralam Wildlife sanctuary, Kerala, India)

चेरॆ/तेरॆ, हॊलगेरु/काडुगेरु(क), रानबिबो(कॊं) = black varnish tree (holigarna arnottiana?, holigarna ferruginea?) – fruits, young leaves are edible? – NOT EDIBLE? (ಬಿಸಿಲುಕೋಲು- ನಿಸರ್ಗವನ್ನು ಅರಿತೆವು ಎಂಬ ಒಣ ಹಮ್ಮು,ಚಿಗುರೆಲೆಗಳ ತಂಬುಳಿ)

चेरॆकॊडि/तेरॆकुडि = young shoots of (holigarna arnottiana?, holigarna ferruginea?) – NOT EDIBLE?

चोपचीनी(क,हिं), द्वीपान्तरवचा/कार्मुक(सं) = china root (smilax china) – raw/cooked leaves, young shoots, cooked roots, raw fruit are edible; leaves used for tea; an edible starch rich powder is prepared from roots

चोरु/गंदरायण(हिं), चोरक/ग्रन्थिपर्णा/क्षेमक/तस्कर(सं) = angelica (angelica glauca/nuristanica/officinalis/archangelica) – seeds, roots, stems, flowers, leaves, shoots are edible; leaves and shoots are used for curries; roots, seeds are used for flavourings; seeds, flowers, stems are used for making herbal tea

चौतॆ बाजि = black siris, ceylon rosewood, fragrant albizia, tea shade tree (albizia odoratissima) – whether sugar can be extracted? (bark is used in the manufacture of a fermented sugar cane wine);

चौळिकोडु,गोरिकायि(क), ग्वार/ग्वारफली(हिं) = guar, cluster beans (cyamopsis tetragonaloba) – used for guar gum or xanthan

जज्जलि, जज्ज्’कैल् = masher (for example, potato masher)

जर्दालु, खुरमानी/ख़ुबानी(हिं) = apricot (prunus armeniaca) – fruits are edible; seeds are edible in small quantities as they contain toxic hydrogen cyanide though has medicinal value in small quantities;

जवेगोदि/बार्लि, यव/यवक/कुन्तल/शीतशूक/साक्तुक/दिव्य/प्रवेट/हयेष्ट(सं) = barley (hordeum vulgare) – seeds, sprouts, barley grass juice are edible; (9 Reasons Why You Should Drink Barley Grass Juice)

जाजि/जादि/आनॆजाजि/आनॆमल्लिगॆ, अज्जुगॆ?/अज्जिगॆ?(क), चमेली/गुलाबिचमेली/जाति(हिं), चेतकी/जाती/मालती/मधुमल्ली(सं) = common/spanish/royal/catalan/white/pink jasmine (jasminum grandiflorum, jasminum officinale, jasminum polyanthum) – leaves, barks, flowers are used for essential oil, condiment and herbal tea (see also मल्लिगॆ, सण्ण मल्लिगॆ, malakolage, काट्’मल्लिगॆ, उडुपि मल्लिगॆ, jasminum sambac)

जामु, ऋष्टफल(सं) = jam (ऋष्टफल = ऋष्ट + फल = jammed + fruit = jam)

जायिकायि, ജാതി/ജാതിക്കാ(म), जायफळ/जातीफल/जायफळ(कॊं), जातीफल/जायफल(हिं), जातिफल(सं) = nutmeg (myristica fragrans) – seeds are used for spice/flavour; essential oils (from seed, aril, bark, leaf and flower) are used in canning industry & soft drinks;

जारिगॆ पुळि, बॆट्टहुणसॆ/अरिसिनगुर्गि(क), तमाल/तमालक(सं) = mysore gamboge (garcinia xanthochymus) – fruits, seed oil are edible

जीगुज्जॆ/दीगुज्जॆ, जीहलसु/दीहलसु(क), चम्पकालु/प्राक्फल/पूतफल/फलवृक्षक(सं) = breadfruit (artocarpus altilis) – cooked fruits, seeds, male inflorescence are edible

जीरिगॆ/जीर्दरि/बीर्दरि, जीरा(हिं), जीरक/जीरण(सं) = cumin (cuminum cyminum) – seed are edible; seed oil used for flavourings

जुमकि/गडियारपू पर्ंद, मरकुआ(हिं<-spanish) = passion fruit (passiflora edulis) – fruits are edible; used in desserts, tarts, pastries, ice creams, juices etc

जैतून(हिं) = olive

जोगिमणि, अश्रुबीज(क) = job’s tear, adlay millet (coix lacryma-jobi)

जोळ, जवार्/ज्वार्/जॊवार्/यवनाल्(हिं) = sorghum, great millet, durra, jowari, milo (sorghum vulgare/bicolor or andropogon sorghum) – seeds edible

जोळपॊद्दॊल् = popcorn

ज्योतिष्मति, गंगम्मनबळ्ळि/करिगन्ने/कॊउगिलु/भवम्ग(क), मालकंगनी(हिं), माळकांगोणी(कॊं), പൊലുലവമ്(म), ज्योतिष्मती/पारावतपदी/काकाण्डकी/कुगुणिका/पीततैला/कटवीका/वेगा/अलवण(सं) = black oil plant, climbing staff tree, intellect tree (celastrus paniculatus) – cooked immature flowers are edible

टिंडा(हिं), ढेमसे(कॊं) = indian squash, round melon, indian baby pumpkin (praecitrullus fistulosus) – cooked fruits, roasted seeds edible

टॊमॆटॊ/तक्कळि, टमाटर्(हिं) = tomato (solanum lycopersicum) – only ripe fruit edible; raw fruit, leaves contain toxin tomatine

डब्ब्’ल् बीन्स्, लीमा बीन्स्, सेम्(हिं) = lima bean, butter/sieva/madagascar bean (phaseolus lunatus) – sprouts, leaves, young pods, green seeds (immature or dry) are edible; lima beans contain toxic phytohaemagglutinin; seeds should be soaked overnight and cooked at least for 20 minutes (7 Amazing health benefits of Lima Beans (Double Beans))

तग्गि(क), क्षुद्र अग्निमन्थ/अरणी(सं) = (clerodendrum phlomidis, clerodendrum multiflorum) – leaves, young shoots are edible

तजंक्/सजंक्/सॊजंक्/चजंक्/पॆटंक्, तगचॆ/चॊगटॆ/तगटॆ(क), चक्रमर्द/चक्रगज/तर्किण/प्रपन्नाड/पुंनाट(आ) = sickle senna (senna tora, cassia tora) – leaves, cooked/roasted seeds (uncooked seeds poisonous) are edible, powdered/fermented leaves are used in condiments/drinks; cooked/roasted seeds are used in beverages

तटस्थ किन्निधान्य = neutral millet

तट्टॆ = small bowl

तट्टॆलॆ मरद बीज/कॊलुगिड(क) = buddha coconut (pterygota alata, sterculia alata) – seeds are edible – narcotic substitute for opium

तप्पलॆ = big bowl

तरतावळ्/दारॆकड्डि, मदनघंटी/वसूक(सं) = (spermacoce hispida, borreria hispida) – leaves are edible; seeds are coffee substitute;

तलंबु, सॆणबु(क), सॆणबु/धाकटी घागरी/सन/ताग(कॊं), ചണം/കിലുകിലുപ്പ(म), पटसन/सन/सनई(हिं), अतसी/शण/सामान्य शणपट्ट(सं) = (crotalaria juncea) – leaves, flowers are edible; flowers are pickled; seeds have toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids, plant may contain poisonous glucosides;

तव = cast iron pan with slightly curved bottom

?? तारि, ताटि/ताळॆ(क) = mangrove date palm, sea dates (phoenix paludosa) – fruits, sap, stem pith are edible; fruit used for coffee substitute; roots though has tannin used for are edible gum

तंबुळि, पचडि(क) = a kind of raita prepared using leaves & vegetables

तामरॆ/तावरॆ, कमल(सं,हिं) = sacred lotus, indian lotus (nelumbo nucifera, nelumbium speciosum) – seeds, flowers, leaves, stems, roots/rhizomes are edible

तामरॆ/तावरॆ दंटु, कमल ककड़ी(हिं) = lotus stem – edible

तारामीरा(हिं), सरिषप(सं) = arugula, rocket, garden rocket, eruca (eruca sativa, taraxacum officinale) – leaves, flowers are edible; used in salads, omelettes, pizza toppings, soups, cooked curries; taramira oil extracted from seeds is used in pickles (see also हक्करिकॆ/कडियाल, सासॆमि)

तारायि, तारॆ, तॆंगिनकायि(क), नारियल्(हिं) = coconut (cocos nucifera) – seed pulp, tender coconut water, tender shell, tender husk at top of tender coconut, pith of the stem, cooked inflorescence, sap from inflorescence, roots are edible; a kind of coffee substitute is prepared from roasted roots

तिमरॆ, ओंदॆलग/उरगॆ(क), ब्राह्मी(सं) = centella, asiatic/indian pennywort (centella asiatica) – leaves are edible, used for salads/chutneys/curries/soups/stews/drinks/tea (ब्राह्मी = bocopa monnieri)

तिर्ल्, तिळ्ळु, बॊंड्, बॊंडु = kernel

तिलगि/नीरुपालॆ(क), showla/pervi(कॊं) = mountain wendlandia (wendlandia thyrsoidea) – flowers are edible

तुगडि = crumbles/crumbs

तुमरि/tumri/tupra/बलायि/abanasi(क), तॆंडु/तॆन्दु/कॆन्दु(हिं) = coromandel/malabar ebony or east indian ebony, kendu/tendu (diospyros crumenata/melanoxylon) – fruits are edible; used for beedi

तुदॆनॆक्कि, हॊळॆनगॆ/नीर्’गनिगलु(क), रान कणेर/शेरणी(कॊं), शेरनी(हिं), जलवेतस/क्षुद्रपाषाणभेद/प्लीहपुषा/प्लीहाशत्रु(सं) = willow-leaved water croton (homonoia riparia) – leaves are edible & used as vegetable;

तुदॆमदरंगि, नॆर्वाळ/हॊळॆतुंबॆ/हॊळॆनॆक्कि/आदिराज, बरना(हिं) = (crateva religiosa, crateva magna) – fruits are edible

तुरॆ, सोरॆकायि(क), लौकी/घिया(हिं) = bottle gourd, calabash (lagenaria siceraria)

तुळसि/तुलासि/तॊळासि, तुलसी/अपेतराक्षसी/वैष्णवी/पर्णासि/मालूक/नागमती/वैकुण्ठ/कठिञ्जर/कठिल्लक/कृष्णमल्लिका/अमृता/विष्णुवल्लभा/भूतपति/नाडिक/कायस्था/कालमाल(सं) = holy basil (ocimum tenuiflorum)(both green/रामतुलसी/श्रीतुलसी/लक्ष्मीतुलसी & purple/कृष्णतुलसी/श्यामतुलसी) – leaves, flowers, seeds are edible; used for herbal tea, desserts, drinks, salads (see also काट्’तुळसि, कामकस्तूरि, निंबॆ तुलसी, परॆंगि तुलसि)

तुंबॆ, गोम/मधुपति/छोटा हल्कुसा/गॊफा(हिं), कोटि/खरपर्णिनी/गोजिह्वा/द्रोणपुष्पी/चित्रपत्रिका/चित्रक्षुप(सं) = (leucas aspera) – cooked leaves are edible in small quanities as a herb;

तूण/चूण/सूण/ऊण/कॊळ्ळि/तुप्प कॆरॆंग्, आलुक/नेगिलुगॆणसु/हॆडिगॆगॆणसु/हंदिगड्डॆ/हंदिगॆणसु/हॆग्गॆणसु/कुंटगेणसु/नेगिलुगॊनॆ/दप्पगॆणसु/हॆण्णुगॆणसु/mudigenasu/नूरेगड्डॆ/noorele genasu/shigenasu/कुंटगॆणसु/तुप्पगॆणसु/मुळ्ळगॆणसु(क), सुरतीकन्द/बैंगनी रतालू/गठलू(हिं), पिण्डालु/दण्डालु/रोमालु/रोमकन्द/ताम्बूलपत्त्र/ = air potato/yam, bitter/cheeky/potato/purple/violet yam (dioscorea alata/bulbifera) – cooked aerial tubers are edible, dioscorea bulbifera roots, inflorescences are edible; tubers used for flour;

तूरिमुळ्ळु =

तूरॊळ्/सूरॊळ्/सूरोळु, बेंत/बेतस(हिं), रथपर्याय/अम्भोज/मञ्जरीनम्र/निचुल/कलञ्ज/वानीर/जलवेतस/कलन/बिल/शाखाल/सुषेण/नम्रक(सं) = rattan, rotang, rattan cane (calamus rotang) – fruits, young shoots are edible (see also पंजिबॆत्तॊ, पंजिबॆद्र्, कणिलॆ);

तॆक्करॆ/तॆक्कर्मॆ/तॆक्करिप्पॆ/चॆक्कर्पॆ/हॆक्कर्पॆ, सौतेकायि/सवतॆ(क), खीरा(हिं) = cucumber, cuke (cucumis sativus) – fruit with seeds, stem tips, young leaves are edible;

तॆत्ति पर्ंद् = egg fruit (pouteria campechiana) – ripe fruits are edible;

तेवु/कॆसु, अळू/आळू/चेम्पू(कॊं) अरबी/अरवी/कचालू(हिं) = taro, colacasia (colocasia esculenta) – cooked leaves, stems, flowers, tubers are edible

तेवुद कंडॆ, अरबी जड़(हिं) = colocasia tubers

तैलहीन भर्जक = oil less fryer

तॊगारि, तूर्(हिं) = pigeon pea (cajanus cajan) – cooked seeds, pods, young shoots, leaves are edible

तॊगारि बेळॆ, तूर् दाल् = pigeon pea pulses

तॊंदुर् = traditional tulunadu cooker

तोकॆगोदि/ऒट्, जई(हिं) = oat (avena sativa) – seeds, young oat grass juice are edible; (Health Benefits of Oat Grass That Will Surprise You);

तोपु = a vessel

तोरंटॆ = (solanum)

तौतॆ/सौतॆ/सवुत्तॆ/चवुंतॆ, मंगळूरु/मद्रासु सौते(क) = (cucumis maderaspatensis)

थडि अवरॆ(त) = winged bean, goa bean, bearded bean (psophocarpus tetragonolobus) – leaves, flowers, seeds, tubers are edible

दडस्?, दडसल/तडसल/जानॆ/जानि/buttiyudipe/butuudipi(क), फाल्सी(कॊं), chadicha(म), फ़ालसा/फालसा(हिं), नीलचर्मन्/नीलवर्ण/पवनोम्बुज/रोषण/परावत/परुस्/परापर/मध्यास्थि(सं) = (grewia asiatica) – fruits are edible; fruits are used for sharbat/squash;

दडस्, दडसलु/कवरिनारु(क), धामनी/pharsa(हिं), धनु/परुस्(सं) = (grewia tiliifolia) – fruits are edible

दड्डाल, कवलु|(क) = wild guava (careya arborea) – young leaves, flower, fruit are edible; seed is slightly poisonous

दड्ड’मुळ्ळु, जिड्डुमुळ्ळु/गजगोट्टॆमुळ्ळु(क) = (ziziphus horrida) – fruits edible

दधिक(सं) = cheese

दंटु पद्पॆ, दंटु/दंटिन सॊप्पु(क), चौलाई/चौराई(हिं) = spleen amaranth, red/chinese spinach (amaranthus dubius) – cooked leaves, stems, seeds are edible

दारॆपुळि, कमराक्षि/कॊमरिकॆ/कमरक/हुळिघट्ट(क), कमारंगा/कमरक/कार्मल(हिं), कर्मरङ्ग/कर्मार/कर्मारक/कर्मर/कर्मफल/मुद्गरक/मुद्गरफल/बृहदम्ल/पर्णमाचाल/वागुण(सं) = carambola, star fruit (averrhoa carambola) – fruits, leaves are edible; fruits are used in jams, jellies, drinks, puddings, tarts, pickles

दालिंबॆ/दाळिंबॆ, अनार(हिं) = pomegranate (punica granatum) – fruits, fruit rinds, flowers, leaves edible; rind/leaves is used for tea/कषाय

दासवाळ/अरपच्चॆ = hibiscus (hibiscus rosa-sinensis) – leaves, flowers are edible; used for syrups/tea/flovourings, jams, salads (How to make Hibiscus tea!, Hibiscus flower jam)

दिवनलिनी = daylily (hemerocallis) – flowers are edible & used in chinese cuisine; (Should You Eat Your Daylilies?)

दिंड्, कच्चे केले का तना(हिं) = core stem (actually stalk of fruits) of banana/plantain plant which has yielded fruit

दौनी/मॆंहदी/गुल मॆंहदी/केशवास/रोज़्मिरी(हिं) = rosemary (rosmarinus officinalis) – raw/cooked leaves, young shoots, flowers are edible; leaves are used for flavouring foods;

द्राक्षॆ, द्राक्षि(क), अंगूर्(हिं), द्राक्षाफल/मार्द्वीक (सं) = grapes (vitis) – fruits, leaves are edible;

दर्भॆ, दर्भ/कुश/पवित्रक(सं) = halfa grass, big cordgrass, salt reed-grass (desmostachya bipinnata) – root is edible (Shodhganga);

धनात्मक किन्निधान्य, सकारात्मक किन्निधान्य = positive millet

नवणॆ(क), काकुन/काकनी/कौणी(हिं), कंगनी(सं) = foxtail millet (setaria italica);

नर्वॊल्, नरवल/भूतनरवल/नरहुली/भूतनॆरिल/बाचणिगॆमर/eegigida(क)xहूसलक्कि, अग्निमंथ/अरणी(सं) = headache tree (premna serratifolia) – leaves, seeds, ripe fruits are edible;

नागतुंबॆ = (ceropegia candelabrum) – raw/cooked tuberous roots are edible;

नागलिंग, नागलिंग/लिंगदमर(क), शिवलिंगं/नागलिंग/नागचाफा/कैलासपती(कॊं), नागलिंग/तोपगोला(हिं), नागलिंग/नागपुष्प/नागकेसर(सं) = cannonball tree (couroupita guianensis) – fruits, though have unpleasant smell, are edible;

नाचिकॆमुळ्ळु/तॊट्टंबाडि, tintarmani(म), तणतणी/घाणेरी(कॊं), छुइमुइ/लाजवंती/लजालू(हिं), अस्ररोधिनी/कन्दिरी/गण्डकारी/गण्डमालिका/शमीपत्त्री/लजकारिका/लज्जा/लज्जिनी/लज्जालु/लज्जिरी/लघुकण्टका/रक्तमूला/सप्तपर्णी/क्षुरिणी(सं) = touch-me-not, sensitive plant, sleepy plant, action plant, dormilones, shameplant, zombie plant, shy plant (mimosa pudica) – flowers, seeds, seed oil are edible;fragrant flowers are used for distilled flower water; crystallized flowers can be used for cake decorations; roots, ripe stems and fruits are toxic;

नाणिलु/इर्पॆ, हिप्पॆ(क), महुआ(हिं), मधूक/माधूक(सं)= mahuwa, mahua, mahwa (madhuca longifolia) – flowers edible; flowers are used to manufacture jams, syrups, sauce, pickle, cookies, halwa, laddu, confectioneries, beverages etc.

नात पू, बॆक्किनुच्चॆ/हेसिगॆ/कक्कॆ(क), राईमुनिया(हिं) = wild sage, lantana verbena (lantana camara) – ripe fruits are edible; leaves are used for making tea; unripe fruits, seeds, leaves are poisonous; NOT EDIBLE?; (http://www.eattheweeds.com/lantana-camare-much-maligned-nibble-2/);

नामद बेरु, सॊगदॆ/नन्नारि/अनंतमूल(क) = sarsaparilla (smilax aspera, smilax ovalifolia/zeylanica) – shoots/tendrils are edible, roots used for soft drinks (see also माकळि/नन्नारि/वगनि बेरु)

नायिचेरॆ?/नायितेरॆ?, naicheru(म) = (nothopegia racemosa) – fruits are edible;

निद्रायम(क), लजालू/छुईमुई(हिं), अलम्बुषा/अञ्जलिकारिका(सं) = water mimosa, sensitive neptunia, sensitive water plant, garden puff (neptunia oleracea) – raw/cooked floating leaves & young shoots, cooked young seedpods are edible; leaves are used for salads;

नीरट/अंतरगंगॆ, अंतरगंगॆ/कुंबिक(क), ആകാശത്താമര/കോടപ്പായൽ/മുട്ടപ്പായൽ/നീർച്ചീര(म), आकाशमूली/जलमांडवी/पाणकुंभी(कॊं), जलकुंभी(हिं), अशकुम्भि/आकाशमूली/पृश्नी/पृश्निका/वारिपर्णी/पह्लिका/जलकुम्भिका/शुक्लपुष्पा/वारिकर्णिका/वारिमूली/वारिपालिका/वारिपूर्णी/वारिचत्वर/पानीयपृष्ठज/हठालु/जलवल्कल(सं) = water cabbage, water lettuce, nile cabbage, shellflower (pistia stratiotes) – well boiled leaves are edible; plant ash is salt substitute; toxic calcium oxalate has to be neutralized by thoroughly cooking;

नीरुळ्ळि/निरॊळिकंडॆ/उळ्ळागड्डि, प्याज्/प्याज़(हिं) = onion (allium cepa) – roots, young leaves are edible;

नीर् चेवु, नीलोत्पल(क,कॊं), കാക്കപ്പോള/കരിങ്കൂവളം/കുളച്ചേമ്പ് /കുവലയം(म), ननका/पानपत्ता/इंदीवर(हिं), इन्दिवर(सं) = marshy betelvine, oval-leafed pondweed, oval leaf monochoria, heartshape false pickerelweed (monochoria vaginalis) – cooked leaves, young stems, cooked/raw inflorescences, rhizomes are edible;

नीर् पिप्पलि, जलहिप्पलि/कॆरॆहिप्पलि/नीरुहिप्पलि/नॆलहिप्पलि(क), ജലതിപ്പലി/കാട്ടു ത്തിപ്പലി/നീർത്തിപ്പലി(म), अदली/गौर मुंडी/जल पिंपळी(कॊं), भू ओकरा/छोटा ओकरा/जल बूटी/जल पिप्पली(हिं), बहुशिखा/जलपिप्पली/वशीर(सं) = frogfruit, capeweed, carpetweed, creeping lip plant, purple lippia, sawtooth fogfruit, turkey tangle fogfruit, wild long pepper (phyla nodiflora) – leaves are edible; used for making a tea;

नीर्’ब्राह्मि, नीरुहत्ति/सण्णदर्बॆ(क), दर्भ/कॊडिपुल्लु(म), दाभ/उलू/सिऱू(हिं), पुरश्छद(सं) = alang-alang, cogon grass, cotton grass, lalang, thatch grass (imperata cylindrica) – roots, cooked young shoots and inflorescence are edible; ash of the plant is a salt substitute;

नीलगिरी = tasmanian blue gum (eucalyptus globulus) – essential oil of leaves is used for cakes, ice creams, cakes, candies, cookies, icings etc;

नीलिबुगरि, नीलबदरी(सं) = blueberry (vaccinium cyanococcus) – fruits are edible;

निंबॆ/लिंबॆ/निंबॆपुळि/लिंबेपुलि, काग्जी/कागजी/काजज़ी निंबू(हिं) = lime, key lime, west indian lime, bartender’s lime, omani lime, mexican lime (citrus × aurantiifolia) – fruits are used for -ade & seasoing; pulp and peel can be used for marmalade; (Citrus aurantifolia – Wild Citrus, Footloose Plants); (see also गजनिंबॆ/गजलिंबॆ);

निंबॆ तुलसी = lemon basil, lao basil (ocimum × citriodorum) – leaves are edible (see also काट्’तुळसि, तुळसि, कामकस्तूरि, परॆंगि तुलसि)

नीरुळ्ळिपंति, हरे प्याज की घास(हिं) = chive/chives (allium schoenoprasum) – entire chive plant is edible; raw blossoms used in salads

नीर्बसळॆ = water spinach, river spinach, water morning glory, water convolvulus, kangkong (ipomoea aquatica) – cooked tender shoots, leaves are edible;

नीर्कंडे = bad tasteless tuber

नीलकूपी(हिं) = cornflower, bachelor buttons (centaurea cyanus) – flowers are edible; used in salads, herbal tea etc

नुरुकलु/कॊलॆमावु/चारोळि(क), चिरोंजी(हिं) = chironji, almondette, cuddapah almond (buchanania lanzan/cochinchinensis)- seeds, seed-oil are edible

नुर्गॆ/नॊर्गॆ/नुग्गॆ, नुग्गे(क), सहजन/सरगवा(हिं) = moringa, drumstick, horseradish, malunggay (moringa oleifera) – leaves, immature pods, seeds, bark, roots, inflorescence/flowers are edible; roots are used for condiments; but there is a report stating root bark is toxic & harmful

नुर्तॆंगि, मणितोंडॆ/काडपावटॆ = (mukia scabrella) (bryonia scabrella?, cephalandra indica?, corallocarpus epigaeus?) – mukia scabrella fruits are edible after removing seeds

नुंगॆल् चॆरी/परॆंगिबॊगॊरि = prunes fruit (dried prunus domestica or any other dried plum)

नुंगॆल् मुंचि, ऒणमॆणसु(क), लाल् मिर्चि(हिं) = dried chili pepper (capsium annum)

नॆक्करॆ, नॆक्करिकॆ, अंकेर्कि/दॊड्डनॆक्करॆ/दॊड्डनॆक्करिकॆ/किंकॆरिक(क), അതിരാണി/കദളി/തോട്ടുകാര(म), नाकेरी/लाकेरी/पालोरे/रिंधा(कॊं), phutki/shapti(हिं), तिनीशः(सं) = indian rhododendron, malabar melastome (melastoma malabathricum) – young shoots, ripe fruit pulps are edible

नॆक्कितप्पु, नॆक्कि/लक्किगिड(क), निर्गुण्डी/शैफालिक/शेपाल/सिन्धुवारिका/सिन्दुवार/श्वेतसुरसा(हिं,सं) = chinese chaste tree, five-leaved chaste tree, horseshoe vitex (vitex negundo) – leaves, seeds occasionally used as a condiment and tea; famine food

नॆड्ते/नॆडत/नॆडिल्, नॆरतॆ/अंडीलु/दिप्पणिगॆ(क), दिंडा, कुकुर जिह्वा(हिं) = bandicoot berry (leea indica) – fruits, young leaves/shoots are edible;

नॆलकडलॆ/नॆलकड्लॆ, कडलेकायि/नॆलगडलॆ/शेंगा, मूंगफली(हिं), कलाय(सं) = peanut, groundnut (arachis hypogaea) – seeds, germinating seeds, young pods, young leaves & tips are edible

नॆलकड्लॆ बॆण्णॆ पर्ंद् = peanut butter (bunchosia armeniaca) – raw/cooked fruits are edible; seeds are poisonous?;

नॆलकुंबुड, भू सक्करॆ गड्डॆ/नॆलगुंबळ(क), പാൽമുതുക്ക്(म), भूमिकुंव्हळी/भुईकोहळा(कॊं), भुईं कोहड़ा/बिलाई कन्द(हिं), विदारी(सं) = giant potato, mauritanian convolvulus, morning glory (ipomoea mauritiana) – seeds are used for coagulating milk;

नॆलबागॆ, लाजरी/चिंचिणी/पिवळा लाजाळू(कॊं), पटवा घास(हिं) = feather-leaved cassia, fish-bone cassia, japanese tea, mountain flat-bean, tea senna (chamaecrista mimosoides) – cooked leaves are edible; leaves are used for making tea;

नॆलबसळॆ, मद्रास् बसळॆ = waterleaf, cariru, ceylon/philippine spinach, ceylon pasalai (talinum fruticosum, talinum portulacifolium) – leaves, young stems are edible; leaves can be dried for storage; high oxalate content makes it unsuitable for kidney disorders, gout and rheumatoid arthritis;

नॆलबसळॆ/गोळिपद्पॆ/नॆलपद्पॆ/नॆलगुलाबि, गोणिसॊप्पु/किरुगोणिसॊप्पु(क), कुल्फा/लूनी/लूनिय(हिं) = common purslane (portulaca oleracea) – leaves, stems, flowers, seeds are edible; high oxalate content is harmful; yogourt reduces soluble oxalate content;

नॆलमुळ्ळि = strawberry (fragaria × ananassa) – fruits are edible;

नॆलनॆक्करॆ = (oldenlandia auricularia) – ?; (see also पर्पडॊ/oldenlandia biflora)

नॆलनॆल्लि = gale of the wind, gripeweed, stonebreaker, seed-under-leaf(phyllanthus niruri/amarus) – entire plant though bitter is edible

नॆललि/नॆल्लिकायि, बॆट्टनॆल्लि/गुड्डनेल्लि(क), ചെങ്ങനീർകിഴങ്ങ് /മലങ്കൂവ(म), आँवला/आंवला(हिं), आधिफल/श्रीफल/शिव/शांत(सं) = indian gooseberry (phyllanthus emblica) – fruits, leaves are edible; seed is used for extracting edible/hair oil

नॆलसंपगॆ/नॆलसंपिगॆ, भूई चम्पा/भूमी चम्पा(हिं), भूमिचम्पक/द्रुघण/सन्धिबन्ध/ताम्रपुष्प(सं) = blackhorm (kaempferia rotunda) – cooked rhizomes, raw/cooked young leaves are edible; used for flavourings

नेरळॆ, जामून्, जामुन्/जम्बू(हिं), जम्बुल/जम्बु (सं) = jamoon, jambolan, malabar plum, java plum, black plum (syzygium cumini); fruits are edible; dried and ground seeds are used for coffee like beverage; raw fruit used for pickles;

नैदिलॆ/कन्नैदिलॆ/कल्हार(क), नीलकमल/इन्दीवर(सं) = blue lotus, star lotus, red/blue water lily, blue star water lily, manel flower (nymphaea nouchali/stellata/cyanea) – roots, leaves, flower stalks, flowers, seeds are edible; roots, seeds are boiled and ground into flour;

नोकटॆ = (gnetum ula) – fruits, roasted seeds/oil are edible

नोल्’कोल्, नविलुकोसु/गॆड्डॆकोसु/मूलंगिकॊसु(क), बन्दगोभी/गांठगोभी/गाँठगोभी(हिं) = kohlrabi, nol kohl (brassica oleracea var gongylodes) – swollen stems, leaves are edible (नोल्’कोल् <- nol kohl <- turnip cabbage)

पुच्चॆ पर्ंद्, न्यावळ(क) = (aglaia elaeagnoidea) – fruits are edible

पच्चिर् = jackfruit bulb

पच्चॆकॊरल्/पच्चॆकॊरळ्, पच्चॆतॆनॆ(क) = patchouli (pogostemon cablin) – leaves are edible and used for herbal tea, seasonings, salads; food grade patchouli oil can be used in bakery products?

पच्चॆ नीरुळ्ळि/निर्तॆ नीरुळ्ळि , ऊळ्गड्डॆ/वसंतद ईरुळ्ळि/ऎसळु ईरुळ्ळि(क), हरा प्याज़(हिं) = scallions (green onion), spring onion

पच्चॆ बॊळ्ळॊळ्ळि, हरा लहसुन(हिं) = green garlic

पट्लकायि/पट्लायि/पटाकिल्, पडुवलकायि(क), चिचिंढा/चिचिंडा(हिं) = snake/serpent gourd (trichosanthes anguina)

पदॆंगि/पदॆंजि, हॆसरु(क), मूँग(हिं) = green gram, mung bean (vigna radiata) – seeds, cooked leaves, pods are edible

पद्पॆ/पदिप्पॆ/पत्पे, हरिवॆ(क), चौलाई(हिं) = common/pigweed/red-root amaranth, red-rooted pigweed (amaranthus retroflexus) – cooked leaves, stems, seeds are edible, nutritious but high oxalate content harmful to kidneys

पद्पॆ/पदिप्पॆ/पत्पे, हरिवॆ(क), चौलाई(हिं) = are edible amaranth (amaranthus gangeticus, amaranthus tricolor) – cooked leaves, stems, seeds are edible, nutritious but high oxalate, phytic acid content harmful

पनॆ/पनॊलि, श्रीताळॆ(क), अविनाशी(सं) = talipot palm (corypha umbraculifera) – immature seed, sap, trunk starch/flour are edible; sap used for making jaggery/sugar

पन्नॆ = hand (or subcluster of stalk, कैल्, गॊनॆ) of banana/plantain fingers

पन्नेरळॆ/मक्किनेरळॆ/बननेरळॆ(क) = rose apple (syzygium hemisphericum) – raw fruits are edible;

परंगॊट्टे, गोडंबि(क), काजू(हिं) = cashewnut

परॆंगिकुडु/परॆंगिलत्तंडॆ, हुरुळिकायि/तिंगळहुरुळि/तिंगळवरॆ(क), बाकला/शिम्बी?/बोडा?(हिं) = common/green/french/ring bean (phaseolus vulgaris) – seeds, young pods, leaves are edible

परॆंगि कोत्तंबरि, अजवायन/अजमोदा/अजमोद/खुरासानी(हिं) = parsley, garden parsley (petroselinum crispum) – tops, roots, seeds are edible

परॆंगि गॊंडॆ, गेंदा/गेंदुक(हिं) = calendula, english/pot/common/scotch marigold, ruddles (calendula officinalis) – flowers, leaves are edible; flowers are used in salads (see also गॊंडॆ/tagetes erecta)

परॆंगि तुलसि/नायि तुलसि = hairy basil (ocimum americanum/album/canum) – leaves, seeds are edible; leaves can be used in curries, salads, sauces, soups; seeds can be used in beverages (see also काट्’तुळसि, कामकस्तूरि, तुळसि, निंबॆ तुलसी)

परॆंगि तॆक्करॆ/चीनिकायि, अमेरिका तॆक्करॆ/चीनिकायि, उद्द चीनिकायि = zucchini, courgette (cucurbita pepo) – fruits, leaves, blossoms are edible; fruits are used in stuffed dishes; blossoms are used for stuffed fries; leaves, flowers are used in salads, curries

परॆंगि पॆलकायि, अननासु/परंगिहलसु(क), अनन्नास/अनानास(हिं) = pineapple (ananas comosus) – fruits are edible

परॆंगि मसालॆ, कबाब चीनी(हिं) = allspice, pimenta, Jamaica pimenta, myrtle pepper (pimenta dioica) – leaves are used for condiments, tea & manufacturing essential oil; dried berries are used for flavouring;

परॆंगिमुंचि/दॊण्णॆमुंचि, दॊण्णॆमॆणसु(क), शिम्लामिर्च/पहाड़ीमिर्च(हिं) = bell peppers, sweet peppers, capsicum (capsicum annuum cultivars) – fruits, flowers/blossoms, cooked leaves are edible

परॆंगि सांब्राणि = borage, starflower (borago officinalis) – leaves, flowers are edible; seed oil is a gamma-linolenic acid supplement; leaves are used in salads, soups, pasta, beverages; flowers can also be used for syrups, cake decorations; leaves contain small amount of liver-toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (see also सांब्राणि, plectranthus amboinicus)

परोल्, पर्वाल्/परवल्(हिं) = pointed gourd, green potato (trichosanthes dioica) – fruits are edible;

पर्ति, रूई/कपास/सूती(हिं), कार्पास(सं) = cotton (gossypium arboreum) – cotton seed oil edible after removing toxic gossypol present in seeds which may lead to paralysis;

पर्पडॊ, कृत्तिकंठिकॆ/पर्पटक(क), पर्पटी/क्षेत्रपर्पट/त्रियष्ट/कटुपत्त्र/रक्तपुष्पक/रेणु/सुतिक्त/राजकृष्ण/रक्तपुष्पक/तिर्यक्फला/कवच(सं) = (oldenlandia biflora, oldenlandia herbacea, oldenlandia corymbosa) – cooked leaves, tender stems are edible; leaves ash liquid is used as tenderizer; (see also नॆलनॆक्करॆ/oldenlandia auricularia);

पर्पाटॊ, पर्पाटक(क), പർപ്പടകപ്പുല്ല് (म), कडवी भाजी/झरसी(कॊं), चमस/खेत पापड़/त्रियष्टि(हिं), चमस/ग्रीष्मसुन्दर/पर्पटक/त्रियष्टि(सं) = african chickweed, five-leaved carpetweed (mollugo pentaphylla) – cooked leaves are edible as pot herb;

पलतीगॆबळ्ळि/बुगुडिहूविन गॆड्डॆ/सीगुंटु सीहालॆ/हिरंदोडि(क), डिडीशाक/दॊरि(हिं), जीवन्ती/मधुस्रव(सं) = cork swallow-wort (leptadenia reticulata) – flowers, leaves are edible;

पल्लॆपू/पल्लॆमुंगॆ, हाथीचक(हिं) = artichoke buds (cynara cardunculus var scolymus);

पवाडपर्ंद्/कार्निकपर्ंद्/चमत्कारिफल = miracle fruit/berry, miraculous berry, sweet berry (synsepalum dulcificum) – fruit pulp is edible;

पंचिरॆंगि/पंतिरॆंगि/पच्चंग्रि/पच्चिरॆंगि, दूलॆगॊंडि बळ्ळि/तुरचि/तुरिकॆबळ्ळि(क), आग्या/लघुमेडशिंगी/आग पान/कळलावी(कॊं) , ചൊറിയണം(म), पीतपर्णी/बढन्त(हिं), पीतपर्णी/करभी/मराकाली/क्षीरशृङ्गी/अलिपर्णी(सं) = indian stinging nettle, climbing nettle, canchorie root-plant, scorpion leaf (tragia involucrata, tragia plukenetii) – leaves are edible; used in curries; touch causes irritation to the skin

पंजिकंडॆ/पंजिकॆरॆंग्, हंदिगड्डॆ/देवकंद/दैवकंद/शिवनकॊनॆ(क) = pig potato, taka, masoa, mahoaʻa, yabia, gapgap (tacca leontopetaloides, tacca pinnatifida) – tubers are edible; tubers used to make flour/starch

पंजिबॆत्तॊ, हंदिबॆत्त(क), ആനച്ചൂരല്‍/തടിയന്‍ ചൂര/വലിയ ചൂരല്‍ല്‍(म), वेत(कॊं, सं), बेंत(हिं) = rattan cane (calamus thwaitesii) – cooked young shoots are edible (JSTOR); (see also तूरॊळ्, कणिलॆ, पंजिबॆद्);

पंजिबॆद्र्/लॆंकिणि/लॆंकिरि/सीमॆ, गंडुबिदिरु(क), കല്ലന്‍മുള(म), बांस/बास/उढा/वेळू(कॊं), बांस(हिं), वंश(सं) = (bambusa stricta roxb, dendrocalamus strictus roxb) – manna (gum) of plants, cooked young stems, seeds are edible; (see also तूरॊळ्, कणिलॆ, पंजिबॆत्तॊ);

पानक = drinks

पायस = pudding

पारसी सेबु, आड़ू(हिं), सुधाफल/पीयूषफल(सं) = peach, nectarine (prunus persica)(see also अमृतफल = pear);

पारिजात/गोळिपद्पॆ, प्राजक्ता/हरसिंगार(हिं), पारिजात/शेफालिका/निशिपुष्पा/शीतमञ्जरी/रङ्गलासिनी/शुक्लाङ्गी/रजनीहासा/रक्तवृन्ता/अत्यूहा/श्वेतसुरसा(सं) = night-flowering coral jasmine (nyctanthes arbor-tristis) – saffron-yellow dye of flowers is used as food colour;

पालॆ, हालॆ/मद्दालॆ/एळॆलॆ हॊन्नॆ(क), स्नांत् रूक्/satvin(कॊं), एरिपालं/daivappala(म), सप्तपर्णी/सप्तपर्ण/satvan/chativan/चितवन/(हिं), सप्तपर्ण/शारद/शारदभूरुह्/विषमच्छद/ विषमपलाश/विशालत्वच्/ब्रह्मत्वच्/सप्तपलाश/सप्तच्छद/ग्रहनाश/शिरोरुजा/विन्याक/शाल्मलिपत्त्रक/शक्तिपर्ण/मुनिच्छद(सं) = devil tree, indian pulai, milky pine, white cheesewood (alstonia scholaris) – latex is edible as chewing gum

पावु = a volume measure of one-to-two cups

पांडेलु, गुरुवाडॆ/जंगम/माणिक्यनगिड/वाडॆमडिगॆ(क), കുറ്റിപ്പാണൽ/കുറുംപാണൽ/പാഞ്ചി/പാണൽ(म), मेनकी/किरमिरा(कॊं), बन निम्बू/गिरगिट्टी/पोटली(हिं), अश्वशाखोट/वननिम्बूक(सं) = orangeberry, gin berry, opal orange, rum berry, tooth brush plant (glycosmis pentaphylla) – fruits are edible;

पिजिकॊरडि = twist whipper/whisk

पिप्पलि/हिप्पलि/इप्पिलि/इप्पुलि, पिप्पाल्/पिप्लि(हिं), अंगादि(म) = long pepper, indian long pepper (piper longum) – dried, unripe berries are used as a condiment in curries and pickles

पिंगाणि, कप्प्, पाव् = cup

पीअनी/पियोनि = peony, paeony (paeonia) – petals of varieties like paeonia lactiflora are edible; petals are used in salads, jellys, punches, lemonades etc

पीरॆ/दारेपीरॆ, हीरॆ(क), तुरई/तोरई/तोरी(हिं) = angled/ribbed/ridged/silky luffa/gourd (luffa acutangula) – unripe fruits, young shoots, seeds, flowers are edible

पुग्गकॊरडि = balloon whipper/whisk

पुच्चॆबील, शरी/शिबि/शृङ्गवेराभमूलक(सं) = typha, cattail, reed, punks, bulrush, reedmace, cumbungi (typha latifolia, typha angustifolia) – rhizomes/roots, inner young stem (cossack asparagus), young shoots, seeds, cooked leaf base, immature flower spike, flower spike sheath, pollens are edible;

पुदीन, पुदीना(हिं) = mint, mentha, spearmint, garden mint, corn/field/wild mint (mentha spicata, mentha arvensis, mentha × piperita, mentha × gracilis, mentha × villosa) – leaves are edible; used for culinary/tea/oil-flavourings

पुनर्पुळि, कॆत्तॆपुळि, मुरुग/मुरुगलु(क), भिरिंड(कॊं) = kokum (garcinia indica, garcinia purpurea) – fruits are edible

पुरितप्पु/दड्ड्मर्द्, दॊड्ड अगसे/सीमॆ तगचॆ/दवळगिड(क) = candle bush (senna alata, cassia alata) – cooked young leaves, young pods are edible in small quantities. roasted leaves as coffee substitute

पुरोजैविक = prebiotic

पुल्कट्टॆ, पुळिंकॊटॆ = roasted tamarind seeds

पुळि, इमली/अम्लिका/आम्लपत्रॆ(हिं), तिन्त्रिणी/तिन्तिडीक(सं) = tamarind (tamarindus indica) – fruits, seeds, flowers, leaves are edible

पुळियार्ल, हुळिचिक्कु/(क) = creeping woodsorrel, procumbent yellow sorrel (oxalis corniculata) – leaves, flowers, pods are edible but effects calcium absorbity, used for drinks/curries/chutneys/salads, nutritious but oxalate content harmful to kidneys

पुंडि = spherical rice cake, boiled cake

पुंडितप्पु, पुंडि/पुंडिपल्लॆ/पुंडिनारु/शणबु/गोगु/पिंडिसॊप्पु/पुंत्रिकॆ(क), गॊंगुर(हिं), बालमूलिका/चक्रबाला/चित्रपुष्पी/प्रस्थिक/छिन्नपत्त्री/मयूरविदला/दृढवल्का/मयूरिका/माचिका(सं) = roselle (hibiscus sabdariffa), deccan hemp, kenaf (hibiscus cannabinus) – leaves, flowers, calyces, seeds, root, bark are edible; roselle seed flour can be used for cookies; roselle seed oil is rich in gamma-tocopherol is used for mayonnaise production; roselle flowers, calyces used for syrup/sharbat, jam etc; roselle calyces extract is used in food and pharmaceutical industries for color and heath benefits (Hibiscus sabdariffa / Roselle Fruits cooking recipe, Luoshen flower, Sweet and sour “plant ruby”, Rosella Growing Harvesting & Jam Making, Roselle Hibiscus Jam from Start to Finish, Nature’s Kool-Aid: Vitamin C Roselle / Hibiscus Tea) (see also cannabis sativa)

पूकोसु/पूगॊबि, हूकोसु(क), फ़ूल्गोबि/फूल् गोभी(हिं) = cauliflower (brassica oleracea var botrytis) – immature inflorescence/flowering crest/head is edible; mature flower, leaves, stem are also edible

पूलि, हूलिगिड/करिहुळि/pulaveri/anamsule(क), pancoli/panjuli/काले मधु/makhi(हिं), पानपोय/parpo(कॊं), पुलिका?/कृष्ण काम्बोजी/भूरिफली/पान्डुफली/श्वेतकम्बुज(सं) = black-honey shrub, black-berried featherfoil, potato-bush, netted-leaved leaf-flower (phyllanthus reticulatus/leucopyrus/macraci, kirganelia reticulata, securinega/flueggea leucopyrus) – fruits are edible

पूंबॆ, कंडिगॆ/बाळॆमूति(क), कच्चे केले का फूल(हिं) = banana blossom/heart/inflorescence/flowers

पॆजकायि, हेब्बलसु(क) = wild/jungle jack (artocarpus hirsutus) – fruits, roasted seeds are edible; seed tea/oil?

पॆरंगायि, पेरळॆ/सीबॆ(क), अमरूट(हिं) = guava (psidium guajava) – fruits, tender leaves are edible; leaves used for tea

पॆरियपू, बड़ीफूल(हिं) = elderflower, elder, elderberry, black/european elder, european elderberry/black elderberry, boor tree, bountry, ellanwood, ellhorn (sambucus nigra) – blossoms, ripe berries are edible; sprigs are used in tarts, cordials, tea, desserts etc; buds are used in pickles; flowers are used for fritters; raw berries and green parts of plant are poisonous (पॆरिय = elder, पू = flower)

पॆरॆकैल् = handheld grater

पॆरॆपॆट्टिगॆ = grate box, box grater

पॆरॆमणॆ = grating stool/pallet

पॆरॆवीणॆ = mandoline grater

पॆलकायि, हलसिनहण्णु(क), कटहल्/पनस(हिं) = ripe jackfruit (artocarpus heterophyllus) – whole jackfruit is edible except may be thorny outer rind

पेष, पेस्ट्, लेप = paste

पॊडि = powder, flour

पॊद्दॊल् पर्ंद्, गुड्डनेरळॆ/जोगि/कुन्नेरळॆ(क), धवी भेडस(कॊं) = cat eye fruit, spicate eugenia (syzygium zeylanicum, eugenia spicata) – fruits are edible;

पॊन्नंगिल्/पॊन्नांकण्णि/पॊन्नांगणि, हॊन्गन/हॊन्नगनॆ/हॊन्नगॊनॆ/हॊनगॊन्नॆ/हॊनगॊन(क), मक्सी/मछेछी(हिं), मत्स्याक्षी(सं) = sessile joyweed, dwarf copperleaf, periquito sessil (alternanthera sessilis) – leaves, young shoots/stems, flowers are edible

पॊन्नॆ, हॊन्नॆ(क), उंडि(कॊं), पुम्म(म), सुरंगी/सुलतान चम्पा(हिं), नागचम्पा/पुन्नाग(सं) = alexandrian laurel, balltree, beach calophyllum, beach touriga, borneo-mahogany, indian doomba oiltree, indian-laurel, laurelwood (calophyllum inophyllum linn, rottlera tinctoria) – immature fruit pulp is edible; mature fruit may be toxic; refined tamanu oil obtained from seeds is edible (see also सिरिपॊन्नॆ, सुरगि/mammea suriga)

पॊंगरॆ, हंगर/हारियाळहॊंगर/हॊंगरक(क) = (erythrina indica, erythrina variegata) – young leaves, tender sprouts are edible

पॊंगु = sprout (for example, coconut sprout inside shell is called तारॆद/तारायिद पॊंगु)

प्रजैविक = probiotic

प्रोभूजिन = protein

प्सालेप/प्सालेह = jelly (प्सालेप = प्सा+लेप = eating+paste/food = jelly)

फ़्रॆंच् बीन्स् = green/french/string/snap beans (phaseolus vulgaris) – pods, seeds edible;

बक्रि/बाक्रि = flat bread of corn

बच्चिरॆ, पच्चिरॆ, वीळ्यदॆलॆ/अंबाडियॆलॆ(क), पान/बीड़ा/ताम्बूल(हिं), ताम्बूल/आमोदजननी/स्त्रीरञ्जन/मुखभूषण(सं) = betel, betel leaves (piper betle) – leaves edible

बच्चंगायि, कल्लंगडि(क), तरबूज(हिं) = water melon (citrullus lanatus, cucumis citrullus) – fruits including rind, seeds, sprouts/microgreens, cooked leaves are edible; (Is It OK to Eat Watermelon Seeds?)

बज्जयि/बज्जॆयि, अटकायि, अडिकॆ(क), सुपारी(हिं), पूग/क्रमुक(सं) = arecanut, betel nut (areca catechu) – arecanut for chewing

बटाटॆ, आलू(हिं), पिष्टपिंड = potato (solanum tuberosum) – tubers are edible (green-colored parts are not are edible)

बटाणि, मटर(हिं) = green peas (pisum sativum) – immature seed pods, seeds, leaves and young shoots are edible; roasted seeds can be used as coffee substitute (Pea Shoots, A Tender Leafy Sprouting Green)

बट्टल् = plate

बण्पु/पन्पु, करिमत्ति/बनपु(क), मत्ति(म), असण/असणा/साताडा/शार्दूल/ऐन/आईन(कॊं), साज/असना/आसन(हिं), रक्तअर्जुन/असन/आशन/प्रियकाम्य/प्रियशालक/पीतशाल/पीतशालक/बीजवृक्ष/वनेसर्ज/अलकप्रिय/परमायुष/हरिद्राभ(सं) = indian laurel, black murdah, crocodile bark tree (terminalia elliptica/tomentosa/alata) – tree gum, juice are edible; bark juice is used for making sugar; bark ash is used for chewing with betel leaves; gum (गोंदु) is used for sweets production;

बदनॆ/बदनॆकायि, चोचो(क), കത്തിരിക്ക/വഴുതനങ്ങ(म), वैंगण/वांगी(कॊं), बैंगन(हिं), वङ्गन(सं) = eggplant, aubergine, brinjal (solanum melongena, solanum esculentum) – cooked fruits(aubergine), leaves are edible;

बन्नि, खेजड़ी(हिं), शमी(सं) = ghaf (prosopis cineraria) – pods, bark are edible; bark flour can be used for various dishes; pods & pod pulp can be dried & stored; bark is rich in potassium & pods are rich in protein;

बप्पंगायि = papaya (carica papaya) – fruits, flowers (male flowers), stems, roots, seeds are edible; the seeds are rich in fatty acids and papaya oil; enzymes like papain and chymopapain in leaf cure digestive disorders; leaf juice is believed to be good against dengue, malaria?; seeds contain many essential micronutrients, antioxidants, monounsaturated fatty acids; avoid papaya during pregnancy; (Can You Eat Papaya Seeds?, What happens if you eat papaya seeds every day);

बरगु(क), छॆना/चॆनॆ का चावल्(हिं) = proso millet (panicum miliaceum)

बसळॆ, मायाल/मयालभाजी/बेलबोंडी/बेलगोंड(कॊं), पोई(हिं), उपोदिका/पोतिका/पोतकी/पूतिका/बलिपोदकी/वृश्चिकप्रिया/पिच्छिलच्छदा/मालवा/अमृतवल्लरी(सं) = malabar spinach (basella alba) – leaves, stems are edible; (see also कॆंपुबसळॆ/basella rubra)

बसवनाटॆ बीज(क) = (sterculia guttata) – seeds are edible

बळंजि = pink cedar (acrocarpus fraxinifolius) – are edible?

बळ्ळु अंबटॆ/बल्लु अंबटॆ?/काट्’द्राक्षॆ, bilee hambu/kaadu drakshi(क), okela/nadena/रान द्राक्ष/जंगली द्राक्ष(कॊं), गोलिंद/कट्टी बेल/पानी बेल(हिं), കാടന് മുന്തിരി/ chembravalli/valiyapirappitikha/karantavalli(म), अम्लवेतसः/वनद्राक्ष(सं) = wild grape (ampelocissus latifolia) – fruits are edible; (Ethnobotanical and Nutritional Evaluation of Some Edible Fruit Plants of Southern Odisha, India, Traditional uses of some wild edible fruits from Palghar district)

बंबॆ = part of leaves forming banana/plantain stem

बंद, बंध = batter

बाणलॆ = frying pan resembling big bowl with two handles

बादामि/बादामु = almond (prunus dulcis, prunus amygdalus) – seeds, seed oil, stem gum are edible

बापुथ तप्पु, बाविन/कडिवाळ/कदिरु सॊप्पु(क), നെയ്‌ത്താലി(म), अंबट(कॊं) = mountain currant (antidesma montanum blume) – fruits are edible; fruits are used to adulterate black pepper; (see also कांपर् पुळि/antidesma acidum)

बारॆ, बाळॆ(क) = banana/plantain (musa) – fruits, peels, base of stalk, corm (rhizome), outer roots, cooked infloroscence are edible; leaves are used for cooking cakes, dumplings etc; leaves/stems used as platters; outer covering of stem is pressed and moulded into plates

बारॆकायि, कच्चे केले(हिं) = plantain (musa × paradisiaca) – cooked fruits, stalk, corm, outer roots, infloroscence are edible; stem juice (of entire stem including fruit stalk) can be drunk directly without cooking

बार्, नॆल्ल्, भत्त(क) = paddy

बावॆ, किलिंबिरि = cream

बिक्कॆ/बुक्कॆ हण्णु(क), डिकामाली(हिं), नाडीहिङ्गु(सं) = (gardenia gummifera) – fruit are edible, leaf bud gum-resin usable for chewing

बिरिबा/रॊलिनिय = rollinia, biribá, wild sugar-apple (rollinia deliciosa) – fruits are edible;

बिळिचूरिमुळ्ळु/बिळिमुळ्ळण्णु/गोट्टे/कॊडचि/कुडिति?/पार्पुलि(क) = (ziziphus caracutta?) – fruits are edible

बिल्वपत्रॆ, बिल्व/गोहरीतकी/नीलमल्लिका/पत्त्रश्रेष्ठ/शिलूष/शैलूष/शलाटु/शिवेष्ट(सं) = bael (aegle marmelos) – raw/cooked flowers, fruits, young leaves/shoots are edible; fruit is used for marmalades, jams, jellies, candy, toffee, drinks, sharbat (bael pana), pulp powder; caution – leaf contains aegeline, not suitable for pregnant women;

बिंबुळि = bilimbi, tree sorrel (averrhoa bilimbi)

बीक्रूटु/बिट्रूट्, कंदुबेरु/गाजरु/चुकंदर(क) = beets, beetroot (beta vulgaris) – roots, leaves are edible

बीजबुगरि/बित्त्’बुगरि/, बीजबदरी(सं) = bilberry (vaccinium myrtillus) – fruits are edible;

बुगरि/बॊगॊरि/बदरि/इलंजि, ऎलचि/बारॆहण्णु/बोरॆहण्णु(क), बेर्(हिं), बदर/गुल्मी/गुडफल/कुकोल/कौवल/सेवि(सं) = jujube, ber (ziziphus jujuba) – fruits, leaves are edible, fruit can be used as a coffee substitute

बुगरि/बॊगॊरि, बोरॆ/ऎलचि(क), ചിരിമുള്ള് /ഇലന്ത(म), बोर(कॊं), बेर्(हिं), कर्कन्धू/बदर/बदरी//फेनिल/कुवल(सं) = chinese date/apple, ber, jujube, indian plum/jujube (ziziphus mauritiana) – fruits are edible;

बॆण्णॆ पर्ंद् = butter fruit, avocado (persea americana) – fruits are edible; fresh/dried/toasted mexican avocado (var drymifolia) leaves used as spice

बॆदिर्’दरि, बिदिरक्कि(क) = bamboo rice (bambusoideae), rice harvested from bamboo

बॆरिक्कायि/सक्करॆचळ्ळि, मरसेबु(क) = pear/pears (pyrus, pyrus communis/pyrifolia) – fruits are edible

बॆंग, वॆंग/करवॆंग(म), बिबला(कॊं), विजयसार/बीज पत्ता(हिं), असन/असनः/आशन/बीजक/पीतसार/पीतशालक = ‎indian/malabar kino tree (pterocarpus marsupium) – pterocarpus marsupium flowers, seeds are edible

बॆंडॆ, भिण्डी/भिंडी(हिं) = ladies finger, okra (abelmoschus esculentus) – seed pods, seeds, leaves, flowers are edible

बेल, बॆळवल/बळूल(क), कैथाबेल्/बेल्(हिं) = wood apple (limonia acidissima, feronia limonia) – raw ripe fruit, young leaves are edible; fruit is used for jellies, jams, chutneys, sherbats, bevarages, icecream

बेलॆ दासवाळ, बय्य दासवाळ = bele plant, aibika, sweet hibiscus, sunset hibiscus, sunset muskmallow (hibiscus manihot, abelmoschus manihot)

बेसॊप्पु/बेसप्पु, करिबेवु(क), कढ़ीपत्ता/करीपत्ता(हिं) = curry leaves tree (bergera koenigii) – leaves, fruits are edible

बैनावु/नागसंपिगॆ/नागकेसरि/केशर, नागकेसर/नागसंपिगॆ, നാഗകേസരം(म), नाग चम्पो/व्हडलो चम्पो/नागचाफा/नागकेशर(कॊं), नागचम्पा/नागकेसर(हिं), नागकेसर/पन्नगकेसर/नागाह्वा/नागाख्य/सर्पाख्य/भुजङ्गाख्य/फणिकेसर/इभकेशर/अहिपुष्प/पुष्परोचन/वराटकरजस्/जनकाह्वय/षट्पदप्रिय/राजपुष्प(सं) = mesua, ceylon ironwood, poached egg tree, cobra’s saffron, indian rose chestnut (mesua ferrea, mesua roxburghii) – raw leaves, well-cooked seeds, ripe fruits are edible; flowers may be hazardous for pregnant women (see also सुरगि/mammea suriga?);

बॊल्द् दासवाळ = white hibiscus (hibiscus rosa-sinensis white cultivar) – leaves, flowers are edible, used for tea/flovourings, salads

बॊल्द् पदॆंगि, मड्कॆकाळु/तण्णिकाळु(क), मोठ्/मट्कि(हिं) = mat/moth/matki/dew bean, turkish gram (vigna aconitifolia)

बॊल्द् बागॆ, belari(क), jalavaka(म), kinhai(कॊं), सफ़ॆद् शिरीष(हिं) = white siris, tall albizia (albizia procera) – leaves, pods, bark are edible; seeds contain hazardous proceranin, tree has hydrocyanic acid;

बॊल्द् सरॊळि, बिळिसरॊळि/हॆज्जॆकरकलु/हॆक्कॆरकलु/मद्ळॆ/सड्ळि(क), ഇടല /കരിവെട്ടി/പാലരണ/മണിത്താളി/വയല(म), करंब/लौकी/पारजांब(कॊं) = rose sandalwood, wild olive (olea dioica) – ripe fruits are edible; (Wild edible plants traditionally used by the tribes inthe Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala, India)

बॊळ्ळॆसप्पु/बॊळ्ळॆरप्पु, बॆळ्ळट्टॆ/बॆळ्ळाटॆ/बॆल्लॊट्टि(क), सरवडी/फूलपत्ती(कॊं), अच्छूक/श्रीवाटी(सं), बेदिना(हिं) = wild mussaenda, dhobi tree, bangkok roses (mussaenda frondosa) – raw/cooked leaves, sepals, calyxes are edible

बॊल्ळॊळ्ळि/तंबरंडॆ, लहसुन(हिं) = garlic (allium sativum) – bulbs, leaves, flowers (bulbils) are edible

बॊंड, सीयाळ/एळनीरु = tender coconut

बॊंड्, बॊंडु, तिर्ल्, तिळ्ळु = kernel

बॊंडॊल्, बुड्डॆहण्णु(क) = cape gooseberry, goldenberry, pichuberry, physalis(physalis peruviana) – fruits, calyx are edible

बोगुणि = basin (used for washing vegetables, vessels, modern incarnation is basin or wash-basin or बॊड्यु-बोगुणि with water-tap)

बोदॆ, बोदिनगिड/shuli/sore(क), കാക്കഞാറ/കോലരക്ക്/കുഴിമുണ്ടൻ/മോളക്ക/(म), kadna/katapenga/बुगडी/दिकना/nilbedsi(कॊं), bisi/धनप्रिया(हिं), ध्वाङ्क्षनासिका/ध्वाङ्क्षवल्ली/ध्वाङ्क्षतुण्डा/ध्वाङ्क्षनासा/शीतपल्लव(सं) = shoebutton ardisia, duck’s eye, ellliptical-leaf ardisia (ardisia solanacea) – ripe fruits, raw/cooked leaves are edible;

बोरुपीरॆ/कॊट्टुंब्रॆ/पुंडिपीरॆ, बोळुहीरे/तुप्पीरॆ/तुप्पद-हीरॆ(क) = sponge gourd, egyptian cucumber, vietnamese luffa (luffa cylindrica)

बोलॆ/बॆण्णॆ कॆरॆंग्, रतालू/गठलू/बंडा आलू(हिं) = white yam (dioscorea cayennensis rotundata) – tubers edible

बोलॆ = jackfruit seed

बोंड =

बोंबॆनॆल्लि, राजनॆल्लि = star gooseberry, starberry (phyllanthus acidus)

मज्जिगॆतप्पु = lemon grass, cymbopogon (cymbopogon schoenanthus, cymbopogon citratus) – used for herbal tea; lemongrass oil can be used as food preservative/flavourings

ब्रॊकॊलि = broccoli, broccoflower (brassica oleracea var italica) – inflorescence/flowering crest/head is edible; leaves, flower stems are also edible

भद्राक्षि, ഭദ്രാക്ഷം/വെള്ളമോദകം(म), भद्रक/भद्राक्ष(कॊं), भद्राक्ष(सं)= beach naupaka, beach cabbage, beach grape, beach plum, beach scaevola, cardwell cabbage, half-flower, malayan rice paper, pipetree, sea lettuce tree, taccada pith (scaevola taccada) – fruits, cooked young leaves are edible;

भंगि/गांजा/कल्लि, भांग/गांजा/चरस(हिं), भङ्गा/गंजिका/शक्राशननिर्यास/कटुतिक्तक = marijuana (cannabis sativa) – seeds, leaves are edible; leaves are used in soups; सॆद्स, seed-oil are nutritious foods; plant is narcotic; (see also पुंडि/hibiscus cannabinus)

मखाना(हिं) = fox nut, lotus seed

मट्टिगुळ्ळ/मट्टुगुळ्ळ = a kind of brinjal/egg plant

मण्णि = jelly prepared by boiling various flours with coconut & jaggery

मणॊलि/मनॊळि, तॊंडॆकयि(क), कुंदरू/टिंडोरा/टेंडली(हिं), बिम्ब(सं) = ivy gourd (coccinia indica, coccinia grandis, momordica monadelpha) – cooked young leaves, stems, fruits and ripe fruits are edible (misnomer gherkins are actually small cucumbers – cucumis anguria)

मद्दुतॊप्पु/आटितॊप्पु = (justicia wynaadensis) – leaves are edible; dishes like halva, porridge are prepared; colorant extracted from leaves & stems also consumed

मधुफल, കരിമുള്ളി(म), बाभुळी तांबट/अठरुन/तांबूट(कॊं), बिलाङ्गड़ा(हिं), मधुफल/श्रृववृक्ष(सं) = ramontchi, governor’s plum, batoko plum, madagascar plum, indian plum, flacourtia, mauritius plum, rhodesia plum (flacourtia indica) – fruits, young shoots are edible;

मरकॆरॆंग्, = cassava (convolvulus batatas) – cooked tubers, leaves are edible; after boiling leaves water should be discarded

मरतेवु/मरचेवु, मरकॆसु/मरगॆसु/काडुगड्डॆ(क), रुखाळूं(कॊं) = hitchhiker elephant ear (remusatia vivipara) – cooked tubers, leaves are edible

मरबसलॆ/मरबसळॆ/चाय/काय/चायमंस/कायमंस = chaya, tree spinach (cnidoscolus chayamansa, cnidoscolus aconitifolius) – cooked leaves are edible; raw chaya leaves have toxic cyanogenic glucoside; (Chaya- The High Protein Greens You’ve Never Heard Of, Can Chaya leaves be used for salad instead of lettuce?)

मरुग?/समीरण?(क), मरुआ/मर्वा(हिं) = marjoram (origanum majorana) – leaves, seeds are edible; used for condiment/seasoning soups, stews, dressings, sauces, herbal tea; oil is used for food flavouring

मरुग/काडु मार्जरं सोप्पु(क), अजवायन की पत्ती(हिं) = oregano (oregano vulgare) – leaves are edible; culinary herb used for flavourings, tea

मरुव/चल्ल/चळ्ळ, हॊळॆ दासवाळ/हॊळॆचळ्ळ(क), जरुल(हिं) = pride of india, giant crepe-myrtle, banabá plant(lagerstroemia speciosa) – fruits, tender leaves are edible

मरुवाचलु/chanangi/ventaku/bhutara(क), ventekku/cheemangi(म), lende/bondga/bondara(कॊं), dhaura/lendia/bakli/sidi(हिं) = small flowered crape myrtle (lagerstroemia parviflora) – gum is edible

मर्सन्कंडॆ/मरसणिगॆ/रच्चेवु/मूंडि = giant taro/alocasia (alocasia macrorrhiza) – cooked corm, stems, leaves and stalks of some cultivars are edible

मल्लिगॆ/इरुवंतिगॆ/गुड्डुमल्लिगॆ/गुड्ड्’मल्लिगॆ/दुंडुमल्लिगॆ, गुंडुमल्लिगॆ/सूजिमल्लिगॆ(क), मोगरा/मॊग्रा(हिं), मल्लिका/मल्लि/सूचिमल्लिका/वनमल्लिका/वनचन्द्रिका(सं) = arabian jasmine, sambac jasmine (jasminum sambac) – fresh flowers used for jams, jellys; dried flowers used for tea; aromatic water of flowers used for desserts; (see also जाजि, सण्ण मल्लिगॆ, malakolage, काट्’मल्लिगॆ)

मलॆचेरॆ, दॊड्ड हॊलगेरु/कटुगेरु/कूटगेरु/काडुगेरु/हुल्गेरि/kankana gaala(क) = blistering varnish tree (holigarna grahamii) – are edible fruit? but tree if contacted it would irritate skin chemically;

मल्ल आकिरॆ, बिच्छू/अल(हिं) = himalayan nettle, nilghiri nettle (girardinia diversifolia) – cooked leaves, cooked flowers, roasted/pickled seeds are edible; leaves are covered in stinging hairs hence can not be eaten raw; (see also आकिरॆ/laportea interrupta);

मल्लतुंबॆ, दॆव्वतुंबॆ/गंटुतुंबॆ/हसिरुतुंबॆ/कर्जालिगिड(क), तुंबो/गूमा(कॊं), गुमा/हलकुसा(हिं), द्रोणपुष्पी/रुद्रपुष्प(सं) = lavender-leaved leucas (leucas lavandulifolia) – cooked plant is eaten as a vegetable;

मांगन्नारि, अमरगंधि, ചെറിയ മാങ്ങനാറി(म), आंबुली/तुरटी(हिं), गुलाबी/पापड़ी(हिं), आम्रगन्धः(सं) = ambulia, indian marshweed (limnophila indica) – raw/cooked plant is edible; used as vegetable or condiment; (see also मांगन्नारि/limnophila repens, कल्लुशुंठि/zingiber zerumbet, अंबॆमंजल्/curcuma zedoaria/curcuma malabarica)

मांगन्नारि, अमरगंधि, മാങ്ങനാറി, आम्रगन्धः = creeping marshweed (limnophila repens) – leaves are edible and added to pan; (IUCN Red List) (see also मांगन्नारि/limnophila indica, कल्लुशुंठि/zingiber zerumbet, अंबॆमंजल्/curcuma zedoaria/curcuma malabarica)

मंजल्/अरसिन, हल्दी(हिं), हरिद्रा/रजनी/शर्वरी/रात्र्याख्या(सं) = turmeric (curcuma longa) – dried roots edible as spice; raw roots are used for pickles and other dishes; leaves are used as wrappers for cooking cakes;

मंजिष्ट/मंजिष्टॊ, मंजिष्ठ/चितवल्लि/सिरगत्ति/सोमलतॆ(क), इटारी/इट्टा/मंजिष्ठ (कॊं), मजीठ/लचकुरा(हिं), अरुणा/मञ्जिष्ठा/मञ्जूषा/हरिणी/ज्वरहन्त्री/योजनवल्लिका/रागाढ्या/नागकुमारी/चित्रलता/रक्तयष्टि/रक्तयष्टिका/लतायष्टि/रागाङ्गी/रक्तयष्टिका/अतिसाम्या/वस्त्ररजनी/क्षेत्रिणी/योजनपर्णी/कालपेशिका/ताम्रपर्णी/ताम्रवल्ली/रक्ताङ्गी/भण्डिका/जिङ्गी/योजनवल्ली/योजनवल्लिका/भञ्जक/वप्र/(सं) = common madder, indian madder (rubia cordifolia) – leaves, raw fruits are edible; burnt ash of stems and leaves are used as vegetable salt;

मंदार, उळिपॆ/कंचुवाळ(क), सफ़ेद कचनार/कचनार/कनियार(हिं), कनकान्तक/कनकारक/ताम्रपुष्पक/युग्मपत्त्र/युगपत्त्र/यमलच्छद/सत्काञ्चनार/सुवर्णार/स्वल्पकेसरिन्/हयवाहनशङ्कर/हयवाहनसङ्कर/कोविदार/चमरिक/शोणपुष्पक/कर्बुदार/सित(सं) = mountain ebony (bauhinia variegata) – cooked/fried fruits, flower buds, flowers, seeds, young leaves, young pods, gum are edible;

मंदार, बसवनपाद/कंचुवाळ/कुडुगूलु(क), कोरट/कोरळ/अम्ली(कॊं), कचनार/कनियार/अम्लोसा/अम्ली(हिं), अम्लपत्रः/अश्मन्तक/अश्मयुक्त/यमलपत्रः(सं) = mountain ebony (bauhinia malabarica) – cooked/fried fruits, flower buds, flowers, seeds, young leaves, young pods are edible; (बसवनपाद means ox’s foot)

मंदार/नेरळॆ मंदार, कंचुवाळ/कंचिवाळ(क), लाल कचनार(हिं) = pom pom orchid tree, hawaiian orchid tree, purple butterfly tree, mountain ebony, geranium tree, purple bauhinia, camel’s foot (bauhinia divaricata/purpurea) – leaves, flowers, seeds, young buds, young pods, gum are edible; flowers/buds are used in pickles, curries etc; seeds are roasted and eaten;

मंदार/बॊल्द् मंदार, बिळीकंचुवाळ/कंबिहू(क) = (bauhinia vahlii) – raw/cooked seeds, leaves, flowers, young pods are edible; seeds are used as pulses in dishes;

मंदार/मंजल् मंदार, आनॆपाद(क), पिवला कांचन/अटमटी/देवकांचन(कॊं), पीला कचनार/छोटा कचनार/कचनार/काण्ड/कोलियार/सोना/खैरपाल/kural/गुरियल/padrian/gwiar(हिं), पीतकाचन/गिरिज/महापुष्प/महायमपत्रक/इन्दुशफरी/द्विदला/यमलपत्त्रक/शिलान्त/श्लक्ष्णत्वच्(सं) = yellow orchid tree, yellow bauhinia (bauhinia tomentosa) – seeds, young leaves are edible; leaves are used for curries; (आनॆपाद means elephant’s foot)

मंदार/बीडि मंदार, अप्ता/अरळुमंदार?/अरळुकाडुमंदार?/कंचिवाळ/बन्नॆमर/वनसंपिगॆ(क), आप्टो/अपटा/सोना(कॊं), गुरियल/कठमूली/झीन-झोरा/झिंझेरी(हिं), यमलपत्रक/युग्मपत्र(सं) = bidi leaf tree, indian kanchan (bauhinia racemosa) – leaves, seeds are edible; leaves are pickled;

मंदार/गॊड्डु मंदार, goddu yaade(क), सेमला कांचन(कॊं), काँडला/सेमला/karial/chakera(हिं) = (retusa/roxburghiana/semla) – bark gum is edible; gum is used for sweetmeat manufacture; (Plant Gum Exudates of the World: Sources, Distribution, Properties, and Applications, Gondh Ka Laddoo (Laddu): Why Indian Mothers Are Served This High-Calorie Ladoo Post-Pregnancy)

मंदार/परॆंगि मंदार = queensland ebony (bauhinia carronii/hookeri) – edible raw nectar can be collected from flowers

माकळि/मागळि/नन्नारि/वगनि बेरु(क) = swallowroot (decalepis hamiltonii) – roots are used for making tea/pickle (see also नामद बेरु, सॊगदॆ)

मादल/मादळ = citron (citrus medica) – fruits are edible; used for pickles/salads/flavourings/confectionery/beverages

मीसॆपू/रत्नगंदि, चण्णकेशव(क), राजतुरा/संकासुर/शंखासुर/मोरशेंडा(कॊं), गुलेतूरा/कृष्णचूरा/कृष्णचरण(हिं), रत्नगंधी/कृष्णचूडा(सं) = poinciana, peacock flower, red bird of paradise, mexican bird of paradise, dwarf poinciana, pride of barbados (caesalpinia pulcherrima) – raw immature seeds, cooked/roasted mature seeds, cooked flowers are edible; better to cook seeds changing water several times

मुक्कॆ (इजिन्) = cinnamon buds

मुच्चिर्/मुच्चेर्, काडु कणिगल/बेट्टद कणिगलॆ/मुच्चिलु(क), करंबल/करमल/चलता(हिं), चर्मरङ्गा/आवर्तकी(सं) = elephant apple, outenga (dillenia indica, dillenia pentagyna) – fruits, flower buds are edible; used for pickles, curries, chutneys, jam, jellies, juice etc.

मुडिबळ्ळु, बळ्ळिमुत्तुग/मुक्कटॆबळ्ळि/काडवरॆहंबु(क), അടന്പു/വള്ളിപ്ലാശ് (म), पळशीन(कॊं), मालिनी/मौला/नसबेल/bando(हिं), = palas-climber, bando lata (spatholobus parviflorus) – seed oil is edible (Quality estimation of potential fatty-oil bearing wild plants of Central Nepal);

मुत्तक, मुत्तुग(क), पालाश/पलाशक/किंशुक/विपर्णक/कर्मिन्/ब्रह्मोपदेशनेतृ/त्रिपक्षक/सुभीरक/सुभीरव(सं) = flame of the forest (butea monosperma, butea frondosa) – young shoots are edible; the gum of the tree कमरकस used in a few food dishes

मुलेठी/मुलहठी/मुलैठी/नद्यपान/गुँजा/घुंघची(हिं), स्थलजा(सं) = licorice (glycyrrhiza glabra) – root is used as sweetener/flavour; toxic if glycyrrhizin is consumed in excess of 100 mg to 200 mg per day;

मुळ्ळु अंकोलॆ हण्णु/balle/मॊदिरकण्णि/kaaka beera(क) = climbing flax (hugonia mystax) – are edible?

मुळ्ळुकत्तरि(क), करथोट्टी(म), वाघांटी/गोविंदी/कडूवाघांटी(कॊं), अरदन्दा/झिरिस/जख्मबेल/हिंस/करवा(हिं), करम्भा/तपसप्रिय/व्याघ्रनखी/व्याघनखी/गृध्रनखी/तपसप्रिय/व्याघघण्टी/कण्टकलता(सं) = ceylon caper, indian caper (capparis zeylanica) – raw/cooked fruits edible; used for pickle (see also कबरा/capparis spinosa)

मुळ्ळुपद्पे, मुळ्ळुहरिवे(क) = spiny/prickly/thorny amaranth, spiny pigweed (amaranthus spinosus) – leaves, stems, cooked seeds are edible

मुळ्ळुपॊंगरॆ/आण्पॊंगरॆ, मुळ्ळुमुत्तल/मुळ्ळुहॊंगरक/मुळ्ळुहालिवाण(क) = (erythrina suberosa) – flowers are edible, used for drinks

मुंचि, मॆणसु(क), मिर्च्(हिं) = chilli, chili pepper, chile pepper (capsium annum) – fruits, flowers, cooked leaves are edible

मुंडॆवु/मुंडीवु/मुंडॆयि, मुंडिगॆ/मुंदिगॆ = common screwpine (pandanus utilis, pandanus fasciculata) – cooked inflorescences, fruits, seeds are edible, leaves used for making steamed cake ‘moode/मूडॆ’.

मूजिकबरतप्पु = (allophylus cobbe) – are edible fruits could be used as fish poison

मूसंबि, मूसंबि/मोसंबी/मौसंबी(हिं) = sweet lemon/lime/limetta, mousambi, musambi (citrus limetta) – fruit edible

मूलंगि, मूली/मुरई (हिं) = radish (raphanus raphanistrum subsp. sativus) – roots, leaves are edible

मॆक्कॆ जोळ = corn

मॆंतॆ, मॆत्तॆ, मेथी(हिं) = fenugreek (trigonella foenum-graecum) – seeds, seed pods, leaves are edible; seeds/leaves used for tea

मेणकागजि पालॆ = wax/waxed/paraffin paper sheet

मैतळ/मैत्तबळ्ळु, मैतळकड्डि/मैत्तबळ्ळि/मॆद्दॆसॊप्पु/मूगुतिगिड(क), തുപ്പലംപൊട്ടി/വള്ളി ഉപ്പുതാളി/വേലിപടക്കം(म), लवण वल्ली(सं) = coromandel, creeping foxglove, chinese violet (asystasia gangetica) – cooked leaves, young shoots are edible;

मेदिनि सण्णरि, मेदिनि सण्णक्कि = fragrant small rice grown in Medini/मेदिनि village of Uttara Kannada district; (ಮೇದಿನಿ ಗ್ರಾಮದ ಸುವಾಸಿತ ಸಣ್ಣಕ್ಕಿ);

मैसूरु गोंदु, yukkali(म) = mysore gum, forest red gum, red gum, blue gum, flooded gum, grey gum, mountain gum, queensland blue gum, bastard box, red ironbark, red irongum, slaty gum (eucalyptus tereticornis) – manna (gum) is edible; roots water is drinkable;

मैंद्’बुगरि, खवारिबदरी(सं) = dewberry (rubus caesius, rubus Section flagellares) – fruits are edible;

मॊलंगि?(क), शलगम/शलजम(हिं) = turnip, white turnip (brassica rapa subsp. rapa) – roots, leaves are edible

युक्का = yucca (yucca filamentosa) – raw/cooked fruits, flowers, boiled emerging flowering stems are edible; flowers used as flavourings; roots & stems contain toxic saponins which can be made edible by boiling or baking; (Cooking Yucca -From Field to Fire- Desert Survival, Desert Survival Food: Yucca Fruits -Junkyard Fox)

रक्तचंदन, रक्तहॊन्नॆ/हनॆमर, लाल् चंदेरी(कॊं), लाल् चन्दन्(हिं), रक्तचन्दन/तिलपर्ण/तिलपर्णिका/लस/रञ्जन(सं) = red sandalwood/sanders/saunders (pterocarpus santalinus) – heartwood powder is used for food colouring

रच्चॆ = the part of jackfruit rind immediately below thorny outer layer

रस, रॆस = juice

रसक, रॆसकॆ = juicer

रसबुगरि/रॆसबुगरि, रसभरी/रसबेरी(हिं), रसबदरी(सं) = raspberry (rubus) – fruits are edible; leaves are used for herbal tea;

रसवस्तिकॆ, रसवस्तिका|(सं) = juice vesicles

रंगुमालॆ/चंद्रकायि, रक्तबीज/रक्तपुष्प/शोणपुष्पी/सिन्दूरपुष्पी/सिन्दूरी(सं) = lipstick tree (bixa orellana) – seeds are used as spice for flavourings/seasonings and colourings

रागि(क), मड़ुआ/रागि(हिं) = finger millet (eleusine coracana)

राजगिरि/राज्’गिरा, राजगिरि/राजगिरा/श्रावणी माठ(कॊं), चौलाई/लाल साग/रामदाना(हिं), राजगिरि(सं) = love-lies-bleeding, pendant amaranth, tassel flower, velvet flower, foxtail amaranth (amaranthus caudatus), blood amaranth, red amaranth, purple amaranth, prince’s feather, mexican grain amaranth (amaranthus cruentus), prince’s feather (amaranthus hypochondriacus – mexican, not indian) – raw/cooked leaves, cooked seeds are edible; seeds are used as rice/wheat/pulses substitute in many dishes; flowers are used for food colourings; use only organic leaves for eating as usage of inorganic fertizers lead to concentration of carcinogenic nitrates in leaves;

राज्म = kidney beans (phaseolus vulgaris) – seeds, young pods, leaves are edible; contain phytohemagglutinin toxin; seeds should be soaked overnight and cooked at least for 30 minutes to remove toxins;

रामफल = bullock’s-heart, bull’s heart, ox-heart, custard apple, wild-sweetsop (annona reticulata) – fruits are edible;

रामभेडा/ = tamarillo (solanum betaceum) – fruits are edible;

रासायनिक = chemical

रॆंजॆ/रॆंजॆवु/रंजळ/रॆंजा/रंजलु, पगडॆ/मुळ्ळुबाजि?(क), बकुळ(सं) = spanish cherry, medlar, bullet wood (mimusops elengi) – fruit are edible;

रेवाचीनी(कॊं), रेवनचीनी/अर्चा(हिं), पित्तीमूलिका/रेवातिका(सं) = rhubarb (rheum × hybridum) – leaf stalks are edible; leaves are toxic with high level of oxalic acid; (Ayurvedic use Rhubarb) अम्लवेतस himalayan/indian rhubarb (rheum emodi);

रोमकल्लटॆ, हॆग्गुळ्ळ/बीजगुळ्ळ/बिळिगुल्ल/मुळ्ळुचुंडॆकायि(क) = hairy-fruited eggplant (solanum ferox) – raw fruits are edible; fruits are used for curries, sauces, drinks; fruit becoes more acidic as it ripens;

लक्ष्मण फल, हनुमान् फल = miracle fruit, soursop, graviola, guyabano (annona muricata) – fruits are edible;

लत्तंडॆ, अलसंडे(क), चवल/चवली/लोभिया/लोबिया/बोड़ा(हिं) = cowpeas (vigna unguiculata) – seeds, immature pods, leaves are edible; seeds can be used for flour/koki;

लवंग = cloves (syzygium aromaticum) – flower buds & fruit pulps are edible; essential oil is obtained from buds, leaves & stems;

लावंच, ramacham(म), वाळा(कॊं), खस/ख्’स्’ख्’स्/खसखस(हिं), बहुमूलक/सूक्ष्मतण्डुला/वीर/विरण/वीरण/वीरतर/वीरभद्र/वीरभद्रक/खटिका/कटायन/श्रीबेर = vetiver, khas khas grass, khus khus grass (chrysopogon zizanioides) – essential oil of roots is used in sharbats, syrup sweets, fruit drinks, canned foods etc;

लावॆंडर् = english lavender (lavandula angustifolia) – the plant is used as a spice or condiment in pastas, salads, dressings, desserts; buds, greens are used in teas;

लांबु/अळंबु, अणबॆ/नायिकॊडॆ(क), खुम्ब/खुम्बी(हिं) = mushroom, toadstool (agaricus bisporus, pleurotus ostreatus, lentinula edodes, auricularia auricula-judae, volvariella volvacea, flammulina velutipes, tremella fuciformis, hypsizygus tessellatus are a few among edible mushrooms species) – (ಲಾಂಬು)

लिंगतॊंडॆ/शिवलिंगि, ഐവിരലിക്കോവ/കരിങ്കായി/നെയ്യുണ്ണി/വേലിച്ചെടി, कार्ट/महादेवी/शिवलिंगी(कॊं) = lollipop climber, marble vine, native bryony, striped cucumber (diplocyclos palmatus) – young leaves, shoots, fruits are edible but considered posisonous in some countries;

भग्नपर्ण, लुंगड़ू/लिंगड़(हिं) = bracken, eastern braken, eagle fern (pteridium aquilinum) – soaked, parboiled, and stir-fried bracken young shoots, cooked roots are edible; carcinogenic compound ptaquiloside in shoots can be removed by soaking in cool water for 36 hours; better change the water two or three times like bamboo shoots; root powder is prepared by cooking, drying and milling; (How to Eat Bracken Fern Safely)(भग्नपर्ण=broken+fern)

लेप, पेष, पेस्ट् = paste

लोटे = tumbler (glass = ग्लास्)

लोळॆसर = aloe vera (aloe vera) – internal soft gel of leaves is edible; toxic aloin should be removed by throwing outer parts and soaking in water many times before use;

लोंगान् = longan (dimocarpus longan) – fruits are edible;

वय्लॆट् पू, बनफशा(हिं), बनफ्शाहा(कॊं), वनपुष्पा/नीलपुष्प(सं) = pansy, sweet/english/garden/wood/common violet (viola odorata, viola tricolor) – leaves, petals are edible; petals are used in jams, jellys, syrups, marshmallows, scones, candies, cakes, pancakes; leaves and flowers are used for salads, tea;

वाटॆ, लकुच/लिकुच(सं) = monkey jack/fruit, lakoocha (artocarpus lacucha) – fruit are edible;

वायु भर्जक = air fryer

वायु भर्जक दिक्कॆल् = air fryer oven

विष्णुक्रांति, शंकपुष्पि = slender dwarf morning-glory (evolvulus alsinoides) – edible part?

व्रीहिक, व्रीहितृ (व्रीहि+क/तृ) = ricer, a utensil with small holes through which boiled potatoes or other soft food can be pushed to form particles of a similar size to grains of rice

शंकपुष्प, गिरिकर्णिकॆ(क), शंखपुष्प/गोकर्णी/विष्णुक्रान्ता(कॊं), സന്ഗ പുശ്പമ(म), अपराजिता(हिं), घृष्टिः/अपराजित/गिरिकर्णिका/अद्रिकर्णी/राधा(सं) = butterfly/blue/cordofan/darwin pea, asian pigeonwings, bluebellvine, campanilla, bandera (clitoria ternatea) – flowers, leaves, young pods are edible; flowers are used as food colour;

शंकबटाटॆ/शंखबटाटॆ, मिश्रीकंद/केसौर/शंकआलू(हिं), शङ्खालु/शङ्खालुक(सं) = jicama, mexican yam bean, mexican turnip, singkamas, pek kouk, bengkuang (pachyrhizus erosus) – raw/cooked roots are edible; rich in dietary fiber; (8 Health and Nutrition Benefits of Jicama, Tasty Masala Shakalu ( Jicama ) Recipe – Indian Street Food Recipes – Bengali Kolkata Style, Jicama Fries | Keto French Fries | Low Carb Potato |);

शांतिकायि/तारॆकायि, goting/बेहडा/वेहळा/बिभीतक/कलिद्रुम(कॊं), താന്നി(म), बहेड़ा/बहुवीर्य/भूतवास/कल्क/कर्षफल(हिं), विभितक/अक्ष/अक्षस्तुष/बहुवीर्य/कर्षः(सं) = baheda, belliric myrobalan, bastard myrobalan, beach almond, bedda nut tree (terminalia bellirica) – fruits, seeds are edible but seeds are narcotic; (see also अळलॆ/अणिलॆ/terminalia chebula)

शीघ्राहार (शीघ्र+आहार) = fast food

शुंटि/शुंठि, अद्रक्(हिं) = ginger (zingiber officinale) – edible as spice

शिवणॆ/शिवने/शिवण/कुंबल्/कुंभुदि/कुमुलु/कुस/कूलॆ/काश्मीरी/काश्मिरि/गांधारिगिड/गुप्सि/गुंभारि/गुम्मि(क), കുമിഴ്/കുമ്പിള്‍/kumbil(म), sirni/सीनी/शिवण/शिवन(कॊं), गमहर/गम्हड़(हिं), मधुमती/कम्भारी/गम्भारी/सिन्धुपर्णी/सिन्धुवेषणम्/स्तूलत्वचा/महाकुमुदा/सर्वतोभद्रा/सदाभद्रा/गोपभद्रिका/कृष्णदन्ता/सर्ववर्णिका/स्वभद्रा/हीरा/ह्रा/मेदिनी/सृष्टि/मधुपालिका/सर्वतोभद्रिका/भद्रपर्णी/स्थूलत्वचा/पीतरोहिणी/काश्मरी/महाभद्रा/श्रीपर्णी/भद्रवती/कृष्णवृन्तिका/सुदृढत्वचा/कार्ष्मर्य/सिन्धुवेषण(सं) = beechwood, gmelina, goomar teak, Kashmir tree, Malay beechwood, white teak, yemane (gmelina arborea) – fruits, flowers are edible; flower is added to rice to make a cake; (ಕೂಲಿ ಮರ = ligustrum perrottetii?)

सक्करॆ कंचि, चक्कोत(क), चकॊतरा(हिं) = pomelo (citrus maxima, citrus grandis) – fruit pulp, peel are edible; fruit peels, leaves, flowers used for flavourings; peels can be braised and candied; (Braised pomelo pith)

सज्जॆ(क), बाज्रा/बाजरा(हिं) = pearl millet (pennisetum glaucum)

सट्टुग = spatula, flat ladle used for separating & turning over pan cakes

सत्त्व = essence

सण्ण मल्लिगॆ/सण्ण मरळॆ(क), sucimulla(म), जूही(हिं), यूथिका/अम्बष्ठा(सं) = (jasminum auriculatum) – leaves are edible (Wild edibles used by Palliyars of the western Ghats, Tamil Nadu)(see also मल्लिगॆ, जाजि, malakolage, काट्’मल्लिगॆ)

सदापुष्प, सदाफूली/सदाबहार्(हिं) = madagascar/rose/rosy periwinkle (catharanthus roseus) – a tea is made from the leaves;

सफेद मूसली/श्वेता मूसली(हिं), द्रवन्ती(सं) = musli (chlorophytum tuberosum, chlorophytum borivilianum) – leaves, bulbs, roots are edible; health tonic prepared from roots;

सब्बसिगॆ(क), सोआ/सोवा/शतपुष्प/मधुरिका लता(हिं) = dill (anethum graveolens) – leaves, stems are edible; plant/seed-oil used as flavourings; plant/seed used for herbal tea;

सरल, सरल/चीड़(हिं), सरल/खल्ल/खलिद्रुम/रक्तशीर्षक(सं) = chir pine, longleaf indian pine (pinus roxburghii, pinus longifolia) – manna, raw/cooked seeds are edible; manna is used as condiment, flavouring;

सरळि, सरॊलि//सळ्ळॆ/चळ्ळॆ/सळ्ळि/सरळि/सुळ्ळ/सुनोलॆ(क), വെട്ടി(म), साला/साली(कॊं) = (aporosa cardiosperma, aporosa lindleyana) – fruits are edible;

सलाद्(हिं) = lettuce, garden lettuce (lactuca sativa) – raw/cooked leaves are edible; (see also काट्’सलाद्/lactuca indica, कहुं/lactuca serriola)

सवुंटु = ladle

सस्यहारि, शाकाहारि = vegeterian

संद् बळ्ळु/बूरु, मंगरवळ्ळि/संदुबळ्ळि/नोलि(क), ചങ്ങലംപരണ്ട(म), घणसवेल/घोणसकांडें/कांडवेल/म्हसवेल(कॊं), हड़जोड़/हादोजोड/जंगली अंगूर/अस्थिसंधानक(हिं), अस्थिशृंखला/अस्थिभङ्ग/अस्थियुज्/अस्थिसंहार/वज्रवल्लि/वज्रांगी/चतुर्धारिन्/चित्रकाण्डाली/काण्डलता/सिरालक(सं) = veld grape, devil’s backbone, adamant creeper (cissus quadrangularis) – fruits, cooked leaves, young shoots/stems are edible; plant ash is substitute for baking powder;

संपिगॆ, चम्पा/सोन चम्पा(हिं), चम्पक(सं) = champaca (magnolia champaca, michelia champaca) – fruits?, seed-oil are edible; bark is used for aulteration of cinnamon;

संरक्षक = preservative

सादेवि, karehindi(क), pirina/puvankurunal/puvamkozhinjal/poovamkurunthala(म), sadodi(कॊ), सहदेवी(हिं,सं) = little ironweed, ash colored fleabane, purple fleabane (vernonia cinerea) – leaves are edibles

सामॆ(क), कुटकि(हिं) = little millet (panicum sumatrense)

सासॆमि/तासॆमि, सासिवॆ(क) = mustard (brassica juncea) – leaves, flowers, seeds are edible; seeds used for curries/flavourings; seed sprouds used for salads

सासॆमि इरेल्, साग्/सरसों का साग्(हिं) = mustard leaves

सास् = sauce

सार = puree

सार्, सारु(क) = thin watery curry with or without coconut & spices gravy

सावयव = organic

सांतानि = boiled & dried jackfruit seeds

सांबार् = thin watery curry with coconut & spices gravy and pulses

सांब्राणि, दॊड्डपत्रॆ/सांब्राणि/सांबार् बळ्ळि/कर्पूरबळ्ळि/कुरुवेलु/पत्रि गिड(क), കാട്ടൂകൂർക്ക/കർപ്പൂരവള്ളി/മതിൽക്കൂർക്ക(म), साविरसंबार(कॊं), पत्थरचूर/पंजीरी का पत्ता(हिं), पाषाणभेदिन्(सं) = country/indian borage, mexican/soup mint, cuban oregano (plectranthus amboinicus, anisochilus carnosus) – leaves are edible; used for herbal tea/कषाय, flavourings, salads, sandwiches (see also plectranthus rotundifolius, borago officinalis)

सांब्राणि/सांब्रालि, कूक(कॊं) = chinese/hausa/native/country/frafra/coleus potato (plectranthus rotundifolius) – raw/cooked tubers, cooked leaves are edible; tubers used for flour; (see also plectranthus amboinicus, anisochilus carnosus);

सिदिगोळि/सिद्दिगोळि, किरुगोळि/किरुगोणि(क) = weeping fig, benjamin fig (ficus benjamina, linn) – fruits are edible; sap of tree has toxic substances like furocoumarins, psoralens, ficin; (The 4 Main Ways of Using Ficus Benjamina Fruit);

सिरिधान्य (हारक, सामॆ, ऊदलु, नवणॆ, कॊरलॆ), श्रीधान्य (सं) = 5 positive millets namely kodo, little, barnyard, foxtail & brown top (Types of Siridhanya by Dr Khadar | Saral Jeevan |, Full Episode on Siridhanya (Millets) by Dr.Khadar | Saral Jeevan |, Millet :History, Importance and health/by Dr Khader)(see also किन्निधान्य/millet)

सिरिपॊन्नॆ, सुरहॊन्नॆ(क), सुरपुन्नाग(सं) = (ochrocarpus longifolius) – fruits are edible (see also पॊन्नॆ, सुरगि)

सिरुगोलि, सिडिगोलि/narsullu/चिट्टुंडि/चेडुबीर/बेट्टद बेवु/हनुमंत तॊप्पलु/karbe, കൈപ്പനരഞ്ചി(म), गुडमी(कॊं), nalbila(हिं) = cipadessa (cipadessa baccifera) – fruits edible;

सिंबळदहण्णु(क) = (cordia myxa?, casearia rubescens?)

सीगॆ/सीगॆकायि, ചീനിക്ക(म), शिकेकाई(कॊं), शिकाकाई/वन रिठा(हिं), कण्टवल्ली/शिववल्ली/श्रीवल्ली(सं) = soap nut acacia, soap pod, soap pod wattle (senegalia rugata) – cooked fruits, flowers, leaves are edible;

सीताफल = custard?/sugar apple, sweetsops (annona squamosa) – fruits edible

सीमॆबदनॆ, चाउ चाउ(हिं) = chayote, mirliton squash (sechium edule) – fruits, seeds, root, stem, leaves are edible; fruits is used for curries, salads, sauces, apple pies etc; leaves are used for stir fries and making a tea; roots are used like potato;

सीमॆबॆंडॆ, सण्णबिंदिगॆ(क), kubaajee(कॊं), gurchanti/socholi(हिं) = common/high/tall/blue mallow, cheeseflower, french hollyhock (malva sylvestris) – boiled leaves are edible; seeeds are used in herbal tea; (see also althaea officinalis, abutilon indicum, malva pusilla)

सुक्क = dry curry with ground coconut & spices (सुक्क may mean hindi सूखा)

सुगंधि, सुरुळिसुगंधि/सौगंधिकापुष्प|(क), सुगंधि/सुगंधिकं(म), सुगंधि/सोनटका/सोनटक्का(कॊं), दोलन चम्पा(हिं), गोपकन्या/गोपसुत(सं) = white garland-lily, white ginger lily, butterfly ginger lily, white ginger lily, garland flower (hedychium coronarium)- steamed flowers, young buds, cooked roots are edible; flowers/buds are used as flavourings;

सुतरस(सं) = squash (सुतरस = सुत+रस = pressed out + juice = squash)

सुपराहार (सु+पर+आहार) = super food

सुरगि, सुरगि/तुंग/नागसंपिगॆ/पुन्नाग(क), सुरंगी(हिं), नागकेसर/नागपुष्प(सं) = indian rose chestnut, ceylon ironwood, cobra’s saffron (mammea suriga?, mesua ferrea?) – fruits are edible (see also पॊन्नॆ, सिरिपॊन्नॆ)

सुरस(सं) = syrup (सुरस = सु+रस = syrup)

सुसस्यहारि/प्रसस्यहारि, प्रशाकाहारि/सुशाकाहारि = vegan

सूक्ष्महरित = microgreen

sulesoppu/अंटुहण्णु(क), keeramaram/maduracheera/maracheera(म), bhagga-chura(हिं) = lettuce tree, moluccan cabbage, andaman lettuce (pisonia grandis) – leaves are edible; eaten as a spinach and a pot herb;

सूतपॆट्टिगॆ मर, बॆंकिपॆट्टिगॆगिड/मुगळि(क), കമ്പിളി/കനല/കാട്ടുചമ്പകം/നാശകം/തീപ്പെട്ടിമരം(म), बोक(कॊं), = matchbox tree, melicope (melicope lunu-ankenda) – leaves are used as condiment/flavour;

सूप(सं) = soup

सूर्नकंडॆ/केनॆ, सुवर्णगॆड्डॆ(क), सूरन/जिमीकंद/ज़मीकंद/रतालू(हिं) = yam, elephant foot yam, whitespot giant arum (amorphophallus paeoniifolius, amorphophallus campanulatus) – cooked tubers, leaves, petioles, stems are edible

???not indian??? = konjaku, konnyaku potato, devil’s tongue, voodoo lily, snake palm, elephant yam (amorphophallus konjac) – corms are edible; corms are used for flour & starch; (Amorphophallus konjac K. Koch)

सूर्यकांति = sunflower, common sunflower (helianthus annuus) – entire plant including leaves, flowers, buds, seeds, young stems, sprouts are edible; leaves are used for salads, curries; sunflower buds can be substituted in artichoke bud dishes; petals is used in jellys, syrups, pesto etc; raw/cooked/roasted roots are eaten; seed flour used for breads, halvas, cakes, crackers, cookies etc; sprouted seeds can be used in salads; roasted seeds are used as sancks; seed oil/butter is used in various recipes (Are Sunflower Leaves Edible?)

सेबु/ऎप्पुल्, सेवि(सं) = apple (malus pumila) – fruits, flowers are edible; flowers can be used for making tea/कषाय; toxic hydrogen cyanide is present in seeds and leaves so should not be consumed in large quantities

? = apple corer (Apple corer)

सेरु = 4 पावु

सेवंतिगॆ/सेवंति/सेमंतिगॆ, गुलदाउदी(हिं), सेवंतिका/हेमपुष्पति(सं) = indian chrysanthemum (chrysanthemum indica) – seeds, pickled flower heads in vinegar, cooked leaves are edible; leaves are used for herbal tea; flowers are used for beverages/tea

सोण पू/सोणॆ पू/जिड्डॆ, कर्णकुंडल/कर्णमंडल/बसवन पाद/गौरिहू(क), തിലം ഓണപ്പു(म), चिर्डा/तेरडा/तिउरी(कॊं), गुल् मॆहॆंदी(हिं), कुलिनी/दुष्परिजती/तैरिनी(सं) = rose/garden balsam, garden jewelweed, spotted snapweed (impatiens balsamina) – cooked leaves & young shoots, raw/cooked seeds are edible; calcium oxalate has to be neutralized by thoroughly drying or cooking or by steeping in water;

सोनॆप्पुलि, अच्चंबरिवॆ/सोनॆहुळि(क), aaronpuli/njerinjampuli/ഞെരിഞ്ഞാമ്പുളി(म), नाग वेल(कॊं), अम्लवेतसः(सं) = climbing begonia, rex begonia vine, painted cissus (cissus javana, cissus discolor) – raw/cooked leaves, young shoots are edible

सोय/सोयबीन्/सोयकुडु, सोयाबीन(हिं) = soybean (glycine max) – raw/cooked young leaves, cooked mature/immature seeds, cooked seedpods are edile; seeds are used for oil, flour, confections, snacks, tofu/tempeh, miso, toffee, textured vegetable protein etc; young seed pods are used for edamame; antinutritional materials in seeds should be removed by pre-soaking then cooking in water manytimes, sprouting, fermentation etc

सोंपु, बडेसॊप्पु/दॊड्डसोंपु(क), सौंफ(हिं) = fennel seed (foeniculum vulgare) – seeds, bulbs, fronds, stalks are edible; (Why is fennel good for you?)

सोंपु = anise, aniseed (pimpinella anisum) – raw/cooked seeds, leaves are edible; leaves are used in salads, puddings, soups, stews etc; seeds are used for flavouring soups, pies, bread, cakes etc; seed oil is used for flavouring sweets, ice cream, chewing gum, pickles etc;

सौगंधिक तैल = essential oil

स्वाद = flavour

hittuluka/bilesule(k), gorakhganja(h) = mountain knotgrass (aerva lanata) – whole plant especially leaves are edible

हक्करिकॆ/कडियाल(क) = dandelion (taraxacum officinale) – leaves, roots, flowers are edible; young leaves are used in salads, soups; cooked matured leaves are used in curries; roots used to make a coffee substitute; flowers are used in jams, syrups etc (see also तारामीरा, सासॆमि)

हनिगॆरॆ = (canthium dicoccum umbellatum (wight) santapau & merchant) – ripe fruits are edible

हलगॆ/हुलिगॆ/हिट्टॆलॆहुलिगॆ/मेलॆकॊल्लिज/केरॆहुळि/अंबागोळ/गुन्नमाद/हिट्तिर्लु/हुंदसे/कूलंगि/पत्तॆहॆज्जळ(क), आंबगूळ/ambgul/amguli/नुरगी(कॊं), അങ്കോലാങ്ക/അങ്കോലപ്പഴം/അങ്കോലപ്പുളി/കാട്ടുമുന്തിരി(म) = wild olive, bastard oleaster, snake Fruit (elaeagnus conferta) – fruits, seeds are edible

हस्तप = gloves

हंचि, ओडिल् = griddle

हंसराज/हंसपदी(आ), कागॆकालु(क) = maiden hair fern, maria’s fern, our lady’s hair (adiantum capillus-veneris) – fronds are used for food decoration, tea, syrup (Practical Plants)

हारक(क), कोडॊं(हिं) = kodo millet (paspalum scrobiculatum)

हालॆ(क) = (chrysophyllum lanceolatum/roxburghii) – fruit are edible

हिंडि, इंदि = oil cake

हुच्चॆळ्ळु/गुरॆळ्ळु/करॆळ्ळु(क), खुरसनि/कारळे(कॊं), राम् तिल्(हिं) = noog/nug, niger, nyger, nyjer, ramtil, ramtilla, inga seed, blackseed (guizotia abyssinica) – seeds are edible; seeds are used as spice in curries; seeds are used for dry chutney preparation; seed flour & oil are used in various dishes;

हुळिमज्जिगॆकायि(क), kalavidhara(हिं) = (rourea santaloides?) – are edible?

हॆत्तुति/किसंगि/‎chittuharalu, कत्तुरं(म), चिकन(कॊं), कुंगि/खरेंट/खरेटी/खिरेंटी/बरियार(हिं), जयंती(सं) = flannel weed, bala, country mallow, indian ephedra, heart-leaf sida (sida cordifolia) – cooked leaves are edible in small quantities; used for cooking and tea substitute; (see also althaea officinalis, malva sylvestris, malva pusilla, abutilon indicum);

हॆम्मुगुळु?/hemmugalu(क), अक्कलकाढा(कॊं), अकरकरा/pipulka(हिं) = toothache plant, paracress, sichuan buttons, buzz buttons, tingflowers, electric daisy (acmella oleracea, spilanthes oleracea, spilanthes acmella) – raw/cooked leaves, flower buds are edible; buds/buttons are used in stews, salads, cocktails, infusions etc; plant extract is used as flavouring;

क्षियाहार (क्षिया+आहार) = junk food

आकरॊल्

  1. Tulu – Names of Plants in India
  2. Survey of Flora of Coastal Karnataka
  3. Useful tropical plants
  4. Plants for A Future
  5. Practical Plants
  6. Dinesh Valke | Flicker
  7. Herbarium JCB
  8. Spectrum: Fruits of the forest
  9. Sample records for edible wild plants
  10. Tulu World: Online Tulu Dictionary

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